Darlène Dubuisson , Patricia Campos-Medina , Shannon Gleeson , Kati L. Griffith CENTERING RACE IN STUDIES OF LOW-WAGE IMMIGRANT LABOR 19 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 109 (2023) race, racism, immigration, work, justice, rights This review examines the historical and contemporary factors driving immigrant worker precarity and the central role of race in achieving worker justice. We build from the framework of racial capitalism and historicize the legacies of African enslavement and Indigenous dispossession, which have... 2023 Most Relevant
Amna A. Akbar NON-REFORMIST REFORMS AND STRUGGLES OVER LIFE, DEATH, AND DEMOCRACY 132 Yale Law Journal 2497 (June, 2023) Today's left social movements are challenging formal law and politics for their capitulation to a regime of racial capitalism. In this Feature, I argue that we must reconceive our relationship to reform and the popular struggles in which they are embedded. I examine the turn of left social movements to non-reformist reforms as a framework for... 2023 Most Relevant
Hardeep Dhillon , American Bar Foundation, Chicago, IL, USA, Email: THE MAKING OF MODERN US CITIZENSHIP AND ALIENAGE: THE HISTORY OF ASIAN IMMIGRATION, RACIAL CAPITAL, AND US LAW 41 Law and History Review 1 (February, 2023) This article unravels an important historical conjuncture in the making of modern US citizenship and alienage by drawing on the state's regulation of naturalization as it relates to Asian immigration in the early twentieth century. My primary concern is to examine the socio-legal formations that constructed the thick distinctions between the modern... 2023 Most Relevant
Leticia M. Saucedo CRITICAL RACE THEORY AND THE LOW-WAGE WORKPLACE: THE STORY OF JANITORIAL SERVICES IN CALIFORNIA 66 Saint Louis University Law Journal 739 (Summer, 2022) Critical race and racial capitalism theories posit that systems and structures in the workplace reinforce each other to create oppressive conditions for groups of workers based on race, national origin, and/or sex. Some of these structures are reproduced from other areas of work and have roots in exploitative labor conditions. Civil rights lawyers... 2022 Most Relevant
Sherally Munshi DISPOSSESSION: AN AMERICAN PROPERTY LAW TRADITION 110 Georgetown Law Journal 1021 (May, 2022) Universities and law schools have begun to purge the symbols of conquest and slavery from their crests and campuses, but they have yet to come to terms with their role in reproducing the material and ideological conditions of settler colonialism and racial capitalism. This Article considers the role the property law tradition has played in shaping... 2022 Most Relevant
Jay Hedges FOREWORD: RACIAL CAPITALISM AS LEGAL ANALYSIS 35 Journal of Civil Rights & Economic Development 173 (Spring, 2022) In 2010, the Journal of Legal Commentary was renamed the Journal of Civil Rights & Economic Development (JCRED) to reflect its status as the official journal of the Ron Brown Center for Civil Rights here at St. John's University School of Law. From then on, the Journal has been dedicated to exploring issues of social, racial, and economic justice... 2022 Most Relevant
Charisa Smith FROM EMPATHY GAP TO REPARATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF CAREGIVING, CRIMINALIZATION, AND FAMILY EMPOWERMENT 90 Fordham Law Review 2621 (May, 2022) America's legacy of violent settler colonialism and racial capitalism reveals a misunderstood and neglected civil rights concern: the forced separation of families of color and unwarranted state intrusion upon caregiving through criminalization and surveillance. The War on Drugs, the Opioid Crisis, and the COVID-19 pandemic are a few examples... 2022 Most Relevant
Chaumtoli Huq INTEGRATING A RACIAL CAPITALISM FRAMEWORK INTO FIRST-YEAR CONTRACTS: A PATHWAY TO ANTI-CAPITALIST LAWYERING 35 Journal of Civil Rights & Economic Development 181 (Spring, 2022) I came to theory because I was hurting--the pain within me was so intense that I could not go on living. I came to theory desperate, wanting to comprehend--to grasp what was happening around and within me. Most importantly, I wanted to make the hurt go away. I saw in theory then a location for healing. [T]he practice of theory is informed by... 2022 Most Relevant
Tonya L. Brito , Kathryn A. Sabbeth , Jessica K. Steinberg , Lauren Sudeall RACIAL CAPITALISM IN THE CIVIL COURTS 122 Columbia Law Review 1243 (June, 2022) This Essay explores how civil courts function as sites of racial capitalism. The racial capitalism conceptual framework posits that capitalism requires racial inequality and relies on racialized systems of expropriation to produce capital. While often associated with traditional economic systems, racial capitalism applies equally to nonmarket... 2022 Most Relevant
Natè Simmons RACIAL CAPITALISM: COMPLEXITIES WITH ENFORCING CORPORATE COMMITMENTS TO END RACIAL INJUSTICE 55 UIC Law Review 519 (Fall, 2022) I. Introduction. 519 II. Background. 521 A. Corporate Pronouncements Committing to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. 521 B. Colin Kaepernick's Protest for Racial Equality. 525 C. Corporate Gift Regulation. 528 D. Legislation on Diversifying Corporate Boards of Directors. 529 E. Tax Credits. 530 F. Racial Capitalism. 531 III. Analysis. 532 A.... 2022 Most Relevant
Maurice R. Dyson ALGORITHMS OF INJUSTICE & THE CALLING OF OUR GENERATION: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF A NEW AI JUSTICE IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL ERA OF GLOBAL PREDATORY RACIAL CAPITALISM 5 Howard Human & Civil Rights Law Review 81 (Spring, 2021) I would like to thank Dean Holley-Walker, Howard University School of Law, Professor Darin Johnson, Kayla Strauss, the staff of the Howard Human & Civil Rights Law Review, and the beloved spirit and legacy of C. Clyde Ferguson Jr., that continually inspires and guides this Annual Symposium. And we are beyond grateful for your thought leadership and... 2021 Most Relevant
Michael McCann , Filiz Kahraman ON THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF LIBERAL AND ILLIBERAL/AUTHORITARIAN LEGAL FORMS IN RACIAL CAPITALIST REGIMES . THE CASE OF THE UNITED STATES 17 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 483 (2021) legal orders, race and inequality, labor, capitalism, authoritarianism, liberalism Scholars conventionally distinguish between liberal and illiberal, or authoritarian, legal orders. Such distinctions are useful but often simplistic and misleading, as many regimes are governed by plural, dual, or hybrid legal institutions, principles, and practices.... 2021 Most Relevant
André Douglas Pond Cummings , Kalvin Graham RACIAL CAPITALISM AND RACE MASSACRES: TULSA'S BLACK WALL STREET AND ELAINE'S SHARECROPPERS 57 Tulsa Law Review 39 (Winter 2021) I. Introduction. 39 II. Racial Capitalism. 40 III. Massacre in Tulsa Oklahoma: Destruction of Black Wall Street. 42 IV. Massacre at Elaine Arkansas: The (Re)Turn to the Delta. 48 V. Racial Capitalism and Race Massacres. 58 VI. Conclusion. 64 2021 Most Relevant
Veena B. Dubal, Professor of Law, University of California, Hastings College of Law, San Francisco, CA, USA UNION BY LAW: FILIPINO AMERICAN LABOR ACTIVISTS, RIGHTS RADICALISM, AND RACIAL CAPITALISM. BY MICHAEL MCCANN AND GEORGE I. LOVELL. CHICAGO: UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, 2020. 504 PP. $35.00 PAPERBACK 55 Law and Society Review 521 (September, 2021) Union by Law is a pioneering work of sociolegal scholarship that tells an interpretative history of nearly one century of struggles by Filipino American labor activists in the Pacific Northwest. Like Michael McCann's first book, Rights at Work: Pay Equity Reform and the Politics of Legal Mobilization, this one, written with George Lovell, sits in... 2021 Most Relevant
Naomi Murakawa RACIAL INNOCENCE: LAW, SOCIAL SCIENCE, AND THE UNKNOWING OF RACISM IN THE US CARCERAL STATE 15 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 473 (2019) racism, antidiscrimination law, colorblindness, criminal justice reform, racial liberalism, abolition Racial innocence is the practice of securing blamelessness for the death-dealing realities of racial capitalism. This article reviews the legal, social scientific, and reformist mechanisms that maintain the racial innocence of one particular site:... 2019 Most Relevant
Lundy Braun THEORIZING RACE AND RACISM: PRELIMINARY REFLECTIONS ON THE MEDICAL CURRICULUM 43 American Journal of Law & Medicine 239 (2017) The current political economic crisis in the United States places in sharp relief the tensions and contradictions of racial capitalism as it manifests materially in health care and in knowledge-producing practices. Despite nearly two decades of investment in research on racial inequality in disease, inequality persists. While the reasons for... 2017 Most Relevant
Nancy Leong IDENTITY ENTREPRENEURS 104 California Law Review 1333 (December, 2016) In my previous article, Racial Capitalism, I examined the ways in which white individuals and predominantly white institutions derive value from nonwhite racial identity. This process of deriving value from identity results from intense social and legal preoccupation with diversity. And it results in the commodification of nonwhite racial identity,... 2016 Most Relevant
Nancy Leong DISSENTING IN AND DISSENTING OUT 89 Chicago-Kent Law Review 723 (2014) Introduction. 724 I. Valuing Identities. 725 A. Racial Capitalism. 725 B. Identity Capitalism. 729 II. Outgroup Participation in Identity Capitalism. 732 A. Outgroup Participation and Theories of Capital. 733 B. Outgroup Participation as Identity Entrepreneurship. 734 C. Identity Entrepreneurship in Action. 737 III. Dissenters as Entrepreneurs. 739... 2014 Most Relevant
Richard Thompson Ford CAPITALIZE ON RACE AND INVEST IN JUSTICE 126 Harvard Law Review Forum 252 (June, 2013) Professor Nancy Leong laments a phenomenon she dubs racial capitalism, a process of deriving social or economic value from the racial identity of another person (p. 2153) which results in the commodification of identity (p. 2152). As examples, Leong points to university affirmative action programs that turn diversity into a mark of elite... 2013 Most Relevant
Nancy Leong RACIAL CAPITALISM 126 Harvard Law Review 2151 (June, 2013) Introduction. 2153 I. Valuing Race. 2158 A. Whiteness as Property. 2158 B. Diversity as Revaluation. 2161 C. The Worth of Nonwhiteness. 2169 II. A Theory of Racial Capitalism. 2172 A. Race as Social Capital. 2175 B. Race as Marxian Capital. 2183 C. Racial Capitalism. 2190 III. Critiquing Racial Capitalism. 2198 A. Commodification. 2199 B. Harm to... 2013 Most Relevant
Nancy Leong REFLECTIONS ON RACIAL CAPITALISM 127 Harvard Law Review Forum 32 (November, 2013) In my article Racial Capitalism, I expressed concern about the ongoing process of racial exploitation in which white people and predominantly white institutions derive value from the racial identity of people of color. I see this process as troubling and undesirable. Rendering racial identity a commodity harms people of color in many ways: by... 2013 Most Relevant
Stacy L. Hawkins SELLING DIVERSITY SHORT 40 Rutgers Law Record 68 (2012-2013) An Essay Responding to Nancy Leong's Racial Capitalism, 126 Harv. L. Rev. _ (2013) Nancy Leong's forthcoming article in the Harvard Law Review, Racial Capitalism, has received much attention even in advance of its publication. The article was posted to the popular site for academic and scholarly work, the Social Science Research Network (SSRN),... 2013 Most Relevant
Daniel Backman "A VAST LABOR BUREAU": THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF COUNTERVAILING BLACK LABOR POWER 40 Yale Journal on Regulation 837 (Summer, 2023) For a few short years starting in 1865, the Freedmen's Bureau exercised regulatory power over labor markets in a fashion unprecedented in ambition, scope, and reach in U.S. history up to that point--and, arguably, since. The Bureau used its broad authority to construct, regulate, and coordinate labor in the post-slavery South according to a... 2023  
Michael Z. Green (A)WOKE WORKPLACES 2023 Wisconsin Law Review 811 (2023) With heightened expectations for a reckoning in response to the broad support for the Black Lives Matter movement after the senseless murder of George Floyd in 2020, employers explored many options to improve racial understanding through discussions with workers. In rejecting any notions of the existence of structural or systemic discrimination,... 2023  
Edward Shore A DREAM DEFERRED: THE EMERGENCE AND FITFUL ENFORCEMENT OF THE QUILOMBO LAW IN BRAZIL 101 Texas Law Review 707 (February, 2023) In 1988, Brazil ratified Article 68, a constitutional provision that recognizes the collective property rights of quilombolas, who are the descendants of formerly enslaved Africans, many of whom had escaped slavery. Article 68 ushered a dramatic transformation in the racial politics of Brazil, one of the most unequal societies in the world.... 2023  
Elettra Bietti A GENEALOGY OF DIGITAL PLATFORM REGULATION 7 Georgetown Law Technology Review 1 (January, 2023) Until recently, the internet was imagined as a decentralized, horizontal, and open space that would foster freedom and equality. Today, it is a collection of walled gardens, a hierarchical ecosystem ruled by a few gatekeepers who leverage access to data and infrastructural capability to enclose users and competitors in relations of dependency.... 2023  
Allegra McLeod ABOLITION AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 69 UCLA Law Review 1536 (September, 2023) During the coronavirus pandemic, movements for penal abolition and racial justice achieved dramatic growth and increased visibility. While much public discussion of abolition has centered on the call to divest from criminal law enforcement, contemporary abolitionists also understand public safety in terms of building new life-sustaining... 2023  
Benjamin Levin AFTER THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM 98 Washington Law Review 899 (October, 2023) Abstract: Since the 1960s, the criminal justice system has operated as the common label for a vast web of actors and institutions. But as critiques of mass incarceration have entered the mainstream, academics, activists, and advocates increasingly have stopped referring to the criminal justice system. Instead, they have opted for critical... 2023  
Diana S. Reddy AFTER THE LAW OF APOLITICAL ECONOMY: RECLAIMING THE NORMATIVE STAKES OF LABOR UNIONS 132 Yale Law Journal 1391 (March, 2023) It is a consequential moment for American labor unions. Over the past decade, public support for labor unions has skyrocketed. Yet even in this moment of renewed public interest, I argue that the American conversation about unions remains constrained by the legacy of past legal decisions. Within the post-New Deal constitutional framework, unions... 2023  
Chi Adanna Mgbako, Nate Johnson, Vivienne Bang Brown, Megan Cheah, Kimya Zahedi ANTI-CARCERAL HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCACY 26 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Social Change 173 (2023) Abstract. The theory of carceral abolition entered the mainstream during the 2020 global protests for Black lives. Abolition calls for divestment from carceral institutions like police and prisons in favor of the expansion of social and economic programs that ensure public safety and nurture community well-being. Although there is little... 2023  
Amanda Shanor, Sarah E. Light ANTI-WOKE CAPITALISM, THE FIRST AMENDMENT, AND THE DECLINE OF LIBERTARIANISM 118 Northwestern University Law Review 347 (2023) Abstract--Firms across the globe, including financial institutions like banks, asset managers, and pension fund managers, are adopting strategies to account for the risks they face from climate change. These strategies include declining to invest in certain emissions-intensive projects or advising firms in their portfolios to report or reduce... 2023  
James Thuo Gathii BEYOND COLOR-BLIND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 117 AJIL Unbound 61 (2023) This essay makes three claims. First, that the central role of race in international economic law has been erased and much more needs to be done to recover its large footprints in the discipline as well as in the policies and practices that constitute it. Second, that rules of international economic law formally embed racially constructed... 2023  
Shikha Silliman Bhattacharjee BITTER HARVEST: SUPPLY CHAIN OPPRESSION AND THE LEGAL EXCLUSION OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 2023 University of Illinois Law Review 1337 (2023) Persistent exploitation of farmworkers is a defining problem of our time. An estimated 32% of the global population is employed in agriculture. At the base of global food systems, agricultural workers sustain the world's population while systematically excluded from labor rights protections. Through an analysis of restrictions on labor rights for... 2023  
BeKura W. Shabazz , Lisa Sangoi BLACK FEMINIST THOUGHT GROUNDS AND CENTERS US: A REFLECTION BY TWO ACTIVISTS AND LEGAL WORKERS 34 Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 122 (2023) Working in and around the law for the past several years, we became acutely aware of--have felt in our bones--a certain paradox in the law: how legal resources and opportunities to shape the law are completely unavailable to the vast majority of people in the United States, and yet legal structures exert an enormous, tsunami-like force on those... 2023  
Nadia B. Ahmad , Victoria Beatty CLIMATE CHAUVINISM: RETHINKING LOSS & DAMAGE 29 Southwestern Journal of International Law 238 (2023) Introduction: Lift Me Up. 239 I. Drowning in an Endless Sea. 240 A. Hurricanes. 241 B. Sea Level Rise. 242 II. Keep me Safe--Safe and Sound. 243 A. Nadia's personal account. 245 B. Victoria's personal account. 246 C. White Privilege. 247 III. Hold Me Down. 250 A. Cancer Alley. 250 B. Loss & Damage. 252 Conclusion.. 255 2023  
Magali Duque CONTRACTING FOR DEBT: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEBT CAPITALISM, HIGHER EDUCATION, AND THE BLACK-WHITE WEALTH GAP 58 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 415 (Winter, 2023) This Note explores the relationship between contractual parties in the credit market, as shaped by debt capitalism, through a brief history of slavery, peonage, and credit/debt legislation. Debt capitalism is a racially exclusionary system--stemming from slavery--in which asset acquisition, facilitated by working to pay debt, (1) is a requirement... 2023  
Ryan Newman CORPORATE CAPTAINS OF THE WOKE REVOLUTION: THE NEED TO LIMIT CORPORATE POLITICAL ACTIVISM 27 Texas Review of Law and Politics 663 (Summer, 2023) Introduction. 664 I. The Woke Revolution. 666 II. The Rise of Woke Corporate Activism. 673 III. The Need to Limit Woke Corporate Activism. 681 IV. Corporate Free Speech Rights Properly Understood. 685 Conclusion. 696 2023  
Ali Murat Gali CRAWLING OUT OF FEAR AND THE RUINS OF AN EMPIRE: QUEER, BLACK, AND NATIVE INTIMACIES, LAWS OF CREATION AND FUTURES OF CARE 34 Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 176 (2023) L1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 177 Part I. Relational Possibilities Under the Siege of Equality: Privatized Romances of Sensuality and the Family. 184 A. Lawrence v. Texas and Domesticated Sensualities. 187 B. Obergefell v. Hodges and Fantasizing Privatized Marriage. 193 Part II. Privatized Subjects in Lifeless Streets: Ethical Ramifications... 2023  
Lauren Sudeall DELEGALIZATION 75 Stanford Law Review Online 116 (July, 2023) The lack of resources available to assist low-income litigants as they navigate the legal system has been widely documented. In the civil context-- where a majority of cases involve eviction, debt collection, and family matters --various solutions have been offered to address the problem. These include expanding the civil right to counsel;... 2023  
Darren Byler DIGITAL TURBAN-HEAD: RACIAL LEARNING AND POLICING MUSLIMS IN NORTHWEST CHINA 46 PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 121 (May, 2023) What do you think of our turban-heads' (women de chantou)? the taxi driver wondered, nodding out the window at a Uyghur pedestrian. I stared at him blankly. Not waiting for my response, he continued, wanting to get my thoughts on how the United States's war in Iraq was going. He had heard that it was going to affect the oil prices. It was 2010,... 2023  
Lauren Sudeall , Elora Lee Raymond , Philip M.E. Garboden DISASTER DISCORDANCE: LOCAL COURT IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE AND FEDERAL EVICTION PREVENTION POLICIES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 30 Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy 545 (Spring, 2023) Eviction sits at the nexus of property rights and the basic human need for shelter--the former benefits from a strong framework of legal protection while the latter does not. In most eviction courts across the country, therefore, the right to housing is unrecognized, while landlords' economic interests in property are consistently vindicated. The... 2023  
Susannah Camic Tahk DISTRIBUTIVE PRECEDENT AND THE PRO SE CRISIS 108 Iowa Law Review 745 (January, 2023) ABSTRACT: A crisis in pro se litigation is currently facing the U.S. legal system. This crisis appears in areas of law ranging from family law to consumer protection law to employment law to the rights of people currently experiencing incarceration. In these and other areas, litigants without lawyers almost invariably lose due to enormous legal and... 2023  
Jose Garcia-Fuerte , William Garriott GREENING THE GREEN RUSH: HOW ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CANNABIS LEGALIZATION CAN ENHANCE SOCIAL EQUITY AND REMEDIATE THE HARMS OF THE WAR ON DRUGS 53 Environmental Law 169 (Spring, 2023) The legalization of cannabis in the United States has focused on creating regulated, for-profit commercial markets modeled on alcohol to replace the prohibition regime that held sway for most of the 20th Century. Like the fabled gold rush of the 19th Century, this new market opportunity has been a magnet for entrepreneurs and prospectors of all... 2023  
Zahra Stardust, Danielle Blunt, Gabriella Garcia, Lorelei Lee, Kate D'Adamo, Rachel Kuo HIGH RISK HUSTLING: PAYMENT PROCESSORS, SEXUAL PROXIES, AND DISCRIMINATION BY DESIGN 26 CUNY Law Review 57 (Winter, 2023) Key words: sex work, financial discrimination, sexual surveillance, precarious labor, algorithmic profiling Sex workers are increasingly documenting financial discrimination when accessing banks, payment processors, and financial providers. As hustle economy workers, barriers to digital financial infrastructure impact sex workers' abilities to... 2023  
Jennifer J. Lee IMMIGRATION DISOBEDIENCE 111 California Law Review 71 (February, 2023) The immigration system operates through the looming threat of the arrest, detention, and removal of immigrants from the United States. Indiscriminate immigrant arrests result in family separation. Immigrants languish in carceral facilities for months or even years. For most undocumented immigrants, there is no available pathway to citizenship. To... 2023  
Nina Farnia IMPERIALISM AND BLACK DISSENT 75 Stanford Law Review 397 (February, 2023) Abstract. As U.S. imperialism expanded during the twentieth century, the modern national security state came into being and became a major force in the suppression of Black dissent. This Article reexamines the modern history of civil liberties law and policy and contends that Black Americans have historically had uneven access to the right to... 2023  
Raymond Fang INSTITUTIONALIZING COMMUNITY CONTROL: A COMMUNITY BENEFITS ORDINANCE FOR LOS ANGELES 32 Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law 193 (2023) C1-3Table of Contents I. Introduction. 193 II. Existing Community Input and Development Policy in Los Angeles. 198 A. Neighborhood Councils. 199 B. Administrative Hearings. 200 C. CEQA Appeals and Litigation. 201 III. The CBO in Detroit. 203 A. History. 204 B. Current Status. 205 C. Current CBO Mechanics. 207 D. Original Proposed CBO Mechanics. 208... 2023  
Robert Knox INTERNATIONAL LAW, RACE, AND CAPITALISM: A MARXIST PERSPECTIVE 117 AJIL Unbound 55 (2023) The Marxist tradition is a crucial voice in the global anti-racist movement. Marxists were at the forefront of the anti-colonial and anti-imperialist movements, with those movements taking up Marxist concepts and deploying them to understand capitalism, race, and colonialism. Yet, these Marxist voices did not reflect systematically on international... 2023  
James Stevenson Ramsey INTERROGATING DOMINION: ON POLITICAL THEOLOGY AND SUMMARY PROCESS EVICTION IN CONNECTICUT 136 Harvard Law Review Forum 288 (February, 2023) The Bible, the Greeks: What is the nature of these texts' openness to the whole world? On the one hand, for [Emmanuel] Levinas, they are available to the whole world; on the other hand, they are the whole world. The whole world is in these texts and the refusal of these texts, the failure to enter into them is also a failure to enter into the... 2023  
E. Tendayi Achiume , James Thuo Gathii INTRODUCTION TO THE SYMPOSIUM ON RACE, RACISM, AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 117 AJIL Unbound 26 (2023) In 2020, the United Nations Human Rights Council held its first ever special session on systemic racism, at the request of the Africa Group, and in the wake of a historic transnational racial justice uprising. The session marked a significant shift in global attention to systemic racial subordination as a global phenomenon, with a particular... 2023  
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