AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Terms in Title or Summary
R. Mark Frey CRITICAL RACE THEORY: THE CUTTING EDGE (THIRD EDITION) EDITED BY RICHARD DELGADO AND JEAN STEFANCIC TEMPLE UNIVERSITY PRESS, PHILADELPHIA, PA, 2013. 839 PAGES, $99.50 (CLOTH), $55.95 (PAPER) 63-APR Federal Lawyer 79 (April, 2016) On July 4, 1992, in Philadelphia, former Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall received the Liberty Medal from the National Constitution Center, and, during his acceptance speech, he voiced frustration with our nation's failure to come to grips with race and racism: I wish I could say that racism and prejudice were only distant memories. I wish I... 2016 Yes
Mario L. Barnes EMPIRICAL METHODS AND CRITICAL RACE THEORY: A DISCOURSE ON POSSIBILITIES FOR A HYBRID METHODOLOGY 2016 Wisconsin Law Review 443 (2016) Introduction. 444 I. Origin Stories. 448 II. Considering What It Means To Do e-CRT. 454 A. e-CRT and Collaborative Form as Method. 455 1. Solo Cross-Disciplinarians. 456 2. Fruitful Collaborations. 459 3. Theory Engagers. 460 4. Empirical Diviners. 463 B. Giving Space to Initial Formations but with a Watchful Eye. 465 III. Challenges. 468 A.... 2016 Yes
Steven W. Bender FOREWORD: NOW, MORE THAN EVER: REFLECTIONS ON LATCRIT AT TWENTY 37 Whittier Law Review 335 (Spring, 2016) More than twenty years ago, as an untenured law professor, I flew to Puerto Rico to participate in a 1995 colloquium on Latinas/os and critical race theory. Sponsored by the Latino Law Professor section of the Hispanic National Bar Association, the event was part of the HNBA's annual meeting. Seated together in front of me on the plane for the... 2016 Yes
L. Darnell Weeden IN FISHER v. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS DERRICK BELL'S INTEREST CONVERGENCE THEORY IS ON A COLLISION COURSE WITH THE VIEWPOINT DIVERSITY RATIONALE IN HIGHER EDUCATION 2016 Utah Law Review OnLaw 101 (2016) Professor Derrick Bell is necessarily and properly acknowledged because of his leading community service as a civil rights lawyer, a scholarly intellectual, law professor, and political activist. Professor Derrick Bell helped to set in place the basis for Critical Race Theory. After Professor Bell became a member of the faculty of Harvard Law... 2016 Yes
Lauren B. Edelman , Aaron C. Smyth, Asad Rahim LEGAL DISCRIMINATION: EMPIRICAL SOCIOLEGAL AND CRITICAL RACE PERSPECTIVES ON ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAW 12 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 395 (2016) workplace inequality, organizations, critical race theory, antidiscrimination law, civil rights, race The topic of workplace discrimination has received considerable attention in both empirical sociolegal scholarship and critical race theory. This article reviews the insights of both bodies of literature and draws on those insights to highlight a... 2016 Yes
Geoff Ward MICROCLIMATES OF RACIAL MEANING: HISTORICAL RACIAL VIOLENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 2016 Wisconsin Law Review 575 (2016) This article examines the socially constitutive force of historical racial violence, dimensions and mechanisms of environmental impact, enduring questions, and remedial implications. I stress the importance of empirical scrutiny of racial violence since the nineteenth century, both for the development of critical race perspective on its social... 2016 Yes
Robert Rubinson OF GRIDS AND GATEKEEPERS: THE SOCIOECONOMICS OF MEDIATION 17 Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution 873 (Spring 2016) Mediation scholars have long debated which mediator style or model is correct. The origin of the debate arises from a foundational piece of scholarship by Leonard Riskin. Riskin proposed a grid of mediator orientations comprised of what came to be known as facilitative mediation and evaluative mediation. A more recent addition to the... 2016 Yes
Chandra L. Ford PUBLIC HEALTH CRITICAL RACE PRAXIS: AN INTRODUCTION, AN INTERVENTION, AND THREE POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION 2016 Wisconsin Law Review 477 (2016) The field of Public Health has a progressive history of working with vulnerable communities to promote the health of all their residents, but it also has a complicated and problematic relationship to race. Its roles in racializing populations and disease as well as promoting scientific racism are well documented. At the same time, anti-racism... 2016 Yes
Alfredo Mirandé RASCUACHE LAWYERING: A CHICANA/O VISION OF REBELLIOUS LAW PRACTICE, PEDAGOGY, AND CLIENTS 23 Clinical Law Review 217 (Fall, 2016) This essay uses storytelling and the narrative method of Critical Race Theory to address current issues in progressive law practice. Specifically, it seeks to expand on Gerald López's vision of Rebellious Lawyering by applying the Mexican concept of rascuache or rascuachismo, a bottom up have not aesthetic and sensibility. By focusing on... 2016 Yes
Amanda Carlin THE COURTROOM AS WHITE SPACE: RACIAL PERFORMANCE AS NONCREDIBILITY 63 UCLA Law Review 450 (February, 2016) Central to critical race theory (CRT) is the notion that law is constitutive (and not merely reflective) of race. This Comment operates within the CRT tradition to point to the development of the courtroom as white space and the construction of legal narrative and legal truth as distinctly white. It traces the exclusion of people of color from the... 2016 Yes
Brett G. Johnson THE HECKLER'S VETO: USING FIRST AMENDMENT THEORY AND JURISPRUDENCE TO UNDERSTAND CURRENT AUDIENCE REACTIONS AGAINST CONTROVERSIAL SPEECH 21 Communication Law and Policy 175 (Spring, 2016) Pundits have recently used the term heckler's veto to describe instances in which vocal audiences seek to silence offensive or controversial speech by putting pressure on institutions that control the private forums that host the speech. The use of the term in these contexts, however, fails to take into account the jurisprudential nuances of the... 2016 Yes
Paul Butler THE SYSTEM IS WORKING THE WAY IT IS SUPPOSED TO: THE LIMITS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM 104 Georgetown Law Journal 1419 (August, 2016) Ferguson has come to symbolize a widespread sense that there is a crisis in American criminal justice. This Article describes various articulations of what the problems are and poses the question of whether law is capable of fixing these problems. I consider the question theoretically by looking at claims that critical race theorists have made... 2016 Yes
Daniel G. Solorzano , Verónica N. Vélez USING CRITICAL RACE SPATIAL ANALYSIS TO EXAMINE THE DU BOISIAN COLOR-LINE ALONG THE ALAMEDA CORRIDOR IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 37 Whittier Law Review 423 (Spring, 2016) As Critical Race researchers and pedagogues, we are constantly looking for contemporary examples of everyday racism and their historical corollaries. Our search has led us to better understand the many contours and interconnected facets of everyday racism, while motivating new interests, in particular, inquiry into historical and contemporary... 2016 Yes
Andrea Freeman "FIRST FOOD" JUSTICE: RACIAL DISPARITIES IN INFANT FEEDING AS FOOD OPPRESSION 83 Fordham Law Review 3053 (May, 2015) Tabitha Walrond gave birth to Tyler Isaac Walrond on June 27, 1997, when Tabitha, a black woman from the Bronx, was nineteen years old. Four months before the birth, Tabitha, who received New York public assistance, attempted to enroll Tyler in her health insurance plan (HIP), but encountered a mountain of bureaucratic red tape and errors. After... 2015 Yes
Cheryl Nelson Butler A CRITICAL RACE FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON PROSTITUTION & SEX TRAFFICKING IN AMERICA 27 Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 95 (2015) Abstract: This Article is one of the first to apply critical race feminism (CRF) to explore prostitution and sex trafficking in the United States. Several scholars have applied critical race feminism to explore several forms of sexual exploitation, including sexual harassment, domestic violence, and rape, but have yet to extend this discourse into... 2015 Yes
William P. Quigley A LETTER TO SOCIAL JUSTICE ADVOCATES: THIRTEEN LESSONS LEARNED BY KATRINA SOCIAL JUSTICE ADVOCATES LOOKING BACK TEN YEARS LATER 61 Loyola Law Review 623 (Fall 2015) I. INTRODUCTION. 623 II. OUR STORIES. 626 A. Local Lawyers. 627 B. Advocates. 666 C. Students Who Later Became Lawyers. 670 III. LESSONS LEARNED. 688 IV. CONCLUSION. 703 2015 Yes
Paul Gowder CRITICAL RACE SCIENCE AND CRITICAL RACE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 83 Fordham Law Review 3155 (May, 2015) Over several decades, feminist philosophy of science has revealed the ways in which much of science has proceeded from mainstream assumptions that privilege men and other hierarchically superordinate groups and existing socially constructed conceptions of gender. In doing so, it has produced a research program that, while rooted in the... 2015 Yes
Llezlie Green Coleman EXPLOITED AT THE INTERSECTION: A CRITICAL RACE FEMINIST ANALYSIS OF UNDOCUMENTED LATINA WORKERS AND THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL 22 Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law 397 (Fall 2015) Introduction. 398 I. The Feminization of Immigration and Immigrant Women in the Workplace. 400 II. Wage Theft Among Immigrant Women Workers. 402 III. Critical Race Feminism. 405 A. The Deference Narrative. 409 B. Exalting Self-Abnegation. 411 C. The Family Comes First (Familismo). 412 D. Learning from the Narratives. 414 IV. The Private Attorney... 2015 Yes
Dr. Debito Arudou JAPAN'S UNDER-RESEARCHED VISIBLE MINORITIES: APPLYING CRITICAL RACE THEORY TO RACIALIZATION DYNAMICS IN A NON-WHITE SOCIETY 14 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 695 (2015) Critical Race Theory (CRT), an analytical framework grounded in American legal academia, uncovers power relationships between a racialized enfranchised majority and a disenfranchised minority. Although applied primarily to countries and societies with Caucasian majorities to analyze White Privilege this Article applies CRT to Japan, a non-White... 2015 Yes
Tayyab Mahmud , Athena Mutua , Francisco Valde LATCRIT PRAXIS @ XX: TOWARD EQUAL JUSTICE IN LAW, EDUCATION AND SOCIETY 90 Chicago-Kent Law Review 361 (2015) It was twenty years ago this fall that a motley crew of youngish legal scholars conceived the LatCrit subject position during a colloquium on Latinas/os and critical race theory held in Puerto Rico during fall 1995. By the end of that event, we had committed to at least one decade of personal and collective praxis toward the advancement of... 2015 Yes
Toni Lester OPRAH, BEYONCÉ, AND THE GIRLS WHO "RUN THE WORLD" - ARE BLACK FEMALE CULTURAL PRODUCERS GAINING GROUND IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW? 15 Wake Forest Journal of Business and Intellectual Property Law 537 (Spring, 2015) I. Introduction - What the Foremothers of Today's Black Female Cultural Producers Had to Contend With. 538 II. Part One - Using Critical Race, Feminist and Cultural Production Theory to Look at Black Female Cultural Production and the IP Regime. 543 III. Part Two: Success at Any Cost - Once Black Female Culture Producers Rise to the Top, Do They... 2015 Yes
Ann C. McGinley POLICING AND THE CLASH OF MASCULINITIES 59 Howard Law Journal 221 (Fall, 2015) INTRODUCTION: POLICING, RACE, AND GENDER. 222 I. EMPIRICAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF POLICE BEHAVIOR. 227 A. Use of Force Studies. 227 B. Investigations of Real Police Departments. 229 1. Cleveland, Ohio Division of Police. 229 2. Ferguson, Missouri Police Department. 233 II. MASCULINITIES STUDIES AND CRITICAL RACE THEORY: HEGEMONY, PRIVILEGE, AND... 2015 Yes
André Douglas Pond Cummings RICHARD DELGADO AND ICE CUBE: BROTHERS IN ARMS 33 Law & Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 321 (Summer, 2015) Critical Race Theory as a movement is best understood through the lens of founding voice Richard Delgado. Delgado's prolific and fearless writings have inspired thousands and launched theories that have literally changed the course of race law in the United States. In fact, two explosive movements were born in the United States in the 1970s. While... 2015 Yes
Charles R. Lawrence III THE FIRE THIS TIME: BLACK LIVES MATTER, ABOLITIONIST PEDAGOGY AND THE LAW 65 Journal of Legal Education 381 (November, 2015) It seems as if I have been teaching Ferguson all of my adult life. In the fall of 1964 I applied to Yale Law School, and the admissions office encouraged me to supplement my written application with an interview. As I rode a Greyhound bus to New Haven I read James Baldwin's The Fire Next Time, a paperback copy purchased for seventy-five cents... 2015 Yes
Aziza Ahmed TRAFFICKED? AIDS, CRIMINAL LAW AND THE POLITICS OF MEASUREMENT 70 University of Miami Law Review 96 (Fall, 2015) Since early in the HIV epidemic, epidemiologists identified individuals who transact sex as a high-risk group for contracting HIV. Where the issue of transacting sex has been framed as sex work, harm-reduction advocates and scholars call for decriminalization as a primary legal solution to address HIV. Where the issue is defined as trafficking,... 2015 Yes
Aya Gruber WHEN THEORY MET PRACTICE: DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS IN CRITICAL CRIMINAL LAW THEORIZING 83 Fordham Law Review 3211 (May, 2015) Modern critical race theorists, at least in the legal realm, often find themselves torn between two venerable, but inconsistent, traditions. On the one side is the critical legal studies paradigm, which incorporates an acute skepticism of law, legal formalism, and rights constructs and instead seeks to expose the deep structures (institutional,... 2015 Yes
Erin M. Kerrison, Ph.D. WHITE CLAIMS TO ILLNESS AND THE RACE-BASED MEDICALIZATION OF ADDICTION FOR DRUG-INVOLVED FORMER PRISONERS 31 Harvard Journal on Racial & Ethnic Justice 105 (Spring 2015) Critical Race Theory scholars have long argued that the War on Drugs is a war waged against low-income, black urban citizens. However, as the spotlight has shifted somewhat from policing street drug use and trafficking among poor, inner-city blacks, to concerns about the chronic pharmaceutical substance abuse of middle- and upper-class white... 2015 Yes
Cynthia Lee (E)RACING TRAYVON MARTIN 12 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 91 (Fall, 2014) As we celebrate the 25th anniversary of Critical Race Theory [CRT], we have much to celebrate and much work ahead. In its early years, Critical Race Theory was a much-criticized and denigrated body of scholarship. By and large, critical race scholars were law professors of color writing about issues of racial subordination and injustice. Their work... 2014 Yes
Jonathan Bailyn A CRITICAL RACE THEORIST ACCOUNT OF CORPORATE RACIAL STANDING 16 Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice 725 (2014) I. Introduction. 725 II. History: Limited Supreme Court Guidance. 726 III. Corporate Racial Standing Doctrine. 727 IV. Race. 728 A. Paradigms. 728 B. Classification Schemes. 730 V. Corporations. 731 A. Shareholder Theory. 731 B. Contractarian Theory. 733 VI. Application. 735 A. Shareholder Identity. 735 B. The Problem of Heterogeneity. 737 C.... 2014 Yes
Gil Lan AMERICAN LEGAL REALISM GOES TO CHINA: THE CHINA PUZZLE AND LAW REFORM 51 American Business Law Journal 365 (Summer, 2014) A current prevailing theory states that a nation needs a well-enforced system of formal property and contract rights in order to enjoy economic growth (the Rights Theory). This theory has prestigious intellectual foundations and also enjoys the support of international organizations such as the World Bank. In the midst of many developing and... 2014 Yes
Camille Gear Rich ANGELA HARRIS AND THE RACIAL POLITICS OF MASCULINITY: TRAYVON MARTIN, GEORGE ZIMMERMAN, AND THE DILEMMAS OF DESIRING WHITENESS 102 California Law Review 1027 (August, 2014) This Festschrift Essay uses the Trayvon Martin controversy as an opportunity to reflect on the insights Angela Harris's scholarship provides about the dialogic relationship between race, masculinity, and the criminal law. After surveying Harris's contributions to critical race theory, masculinity studies, and feminist legal theory, this Essay... 2014 Yes
Tehama Lopez Bunyasi BREATHING DIFFERENCE, SHARING EMPOWERMENT 32 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 67 (2014) We celebrate Margaret E. Montoya's Máscaras, Trenzas, y Greñas as a canonical article in critical race theory because its deft interweaving and unbraiding of stories helps us consider the marginalizing assumptions of the legal world, the way normativity translates into authority, and the means by which the mainstream is disguised as unbiased. She... 2014 Yes
Sahar F. Aziz COERCIVE ASSIMILATIONISM: THE PERILS OF MUSLIM WOMEN'S IDENTITY PERFORMANCE IN THE WORKPLACE 20 Michigan Journal of Race and Law 1 (Fall, 2014) Should employees have the legal right to be themselves at work? Most Americans would answer in the negative because work is a privilege, not an entitlement. But what if being oneself entails behaviors, mannerisms, and values integrally linked to the employee's gender, race, or religion? And what if the basis for the employer's workplace rules and... 2014 Yes
Dan Subotnik CONTESTING A CONTESTATION OF TESTING: A REPLY TO RICHARD DELGADO 9 University of Massachusetts Law Review 296 (Spring, 2014) Dan Subotnik responds to Richard Delgado, Standardized Testing as Discrimination: A Reply to Dan Subotnik, 9 U. Mass. L. Rev. 98 (2014). I. INTRODUCTION. 298 II. TESTING AND PREPARATION. 299 III. TESTING AND SOCIETY. 302 Professor Richard Delgado is not only a founder of the critical race theory school but he is also among the most prolific and... 2014 Yes
Francisco Valdes CRITICAL RACE ACTION: QUEER LESSONS AND SEVEN LEGACIES FROM THE ONE AND ONLY PROFESSOR BELL 36 Western New England Law Review 109 (2014) I begin, as Professor Derrick Bell might have, with a short story based on personal experience related to social realities. When the Law and Society Association met in Pittsburgh during the early 2000s, I was asked to participate in an author-meets-reader session focused on the Professor's then-latest book, Ethical Ambition. After the session, we... 2014 Yes
I. Bennett Capers CRITICAL RACE THEORY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 12 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 1 (Fall, 2014) When the Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law invited me to guest edit a symposium issue, the answer was an easy one. For so many of us, this journal feels like home. Choosing a topic was an easy call as well. As it happened, I had recently been asked to write an encyclopedia entry on Critical Race Theory [[CRT] and criminal justice for the Oxford... 2014 Yes
Devon W. Carbado , Daria Roithmayr CRITICAL RACE THEORY MEETS SOCIAL SCIENCE 10 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 149 (2014) critical race theory, social science, critical social science, implicit bias Social science research offers critical race theory (CRT) scholars a useful methodology to advance core CRT claims. Among other things, social science can provide CRT with data and theoretical frameworks to support key empirical claims. Social psychology and sociology in... 2014 Yes
Jean Stefancic DISCERNING CRITICAL MOMENTS: LESSONS FROM THE LIFE OF DERRICK BELL TITLE 75 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 457 (Summer, 2014) Critical race theory seeks to explain the shifting tides of racial fortune. Most of the movement's scholarship concerns history writ large-changes in immigration policy affecting thousands, changes in media images and stereotypes, and alterations of Supreme Court doctrine with respect to proof of discrimination, for example. But it also teaches... 2014 Yes
  ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 43 Journal of Law and Education 559 (Fall, 2014) Cynthia Grant Bowman & Elizabeth Brundige, Sexism, Sexual Violence, Sexuality, and the Schooling of Girls in Africa: A Case Study from Lusaka Province, Zambia, 23 Tex. J. Women & L. 37 (2013). In this article, the author describes a study regarding 105 schoolgirls living in Zambia and the obstacles they faced because of their gender. The study... 2014 Yes
Noah Matthew Rich, Editor in Chief FOREWORD 6 Georgetown Journal of Law & Modern Critical Race Perspectives 137 (Fall, 2014) Although most modern laws in the United States are facially neutral, even the most mundane of policy decisions may have disproportionate racial implications. This Issue aims to explore policies in the United States and around the world, viewing them through a Critical Race Theory lens and revealing the racial effects-sometime subtle, sometimes... 2014 Yes
Cynthia Lee HONORING ANGELA HARRIS: A REVIEW OF "GENDER, VIOLENCE, RACE, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE" 47 U.C. Davis Law Review 1037 (April, 2014) I would like to start by thanking Melissa Murray for inviting me to participate in this celebration of Angela Harris's work on September 27, 2013, at the University of California at Berkeley School of Law. Angela is one of the nation's leading critical race scholars, and is also recognized as one of the nation's preeminent feminist scholars. Her... 2014 Yes
Brandon Paradise HOW CRITICAL RACE THEORY MARGINALIZES THE AFRICAN AMERICAN CHRISTIAN TRADITION 20 Michigan Journal of Race and Law 117 (Fall, 2014) This Article offers the first comprehensive account of the marginalization of the African American Christian tradition in the movement of race and law scholarship known as critical race theory. While committed to grounding itself in the perspectives of communities of color, critical race theory has virtually ignored the significance of the fact... 2014 Yes
Jasmine B. Gonzales Rose INTRODUCTION 75 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 429 (Summer, 2014) Critical Race Theory is dead. This was the message the Editor-in-Chief of the University of Pittsburgh Law Review received when he approached an advisor about the prospect of commemorating the 75th volume of the Law Review by dedicating a symposium and printed issue in honor of esteemed alumnus, the-late Derrick A. Bell, Jr. (L.L.B. 1957). Moved... 2014 Yes
  INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITORS 112 Michigan Law Review First Impressions 56 (January, 2014) This Essay opens a Symposium honoring the contribution of Mari Matsuda to American legal scholarship. The first Asian American female to gain tenure at a U.S. law school, she helped establish a scholarly movement--critical race theory--that reshaped several academic disciplines. She also was the first to propose a new perspective--looking to the... 2014 Yes
Sudha Setty TARGETED KILLINGS AND THE INTEREST CONVERGENCE DILEMMA 36 Western New England Law Review 169 (2014) In the 1980s, Professor Derrick Bell posited a theory of interest convergence as part of his critical race theory work, arguing that the major strides forward in civil rights law and policy that benefited African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s only occurred because of the perceived benefits of those changes to white elites during that time. In... 2014 Yes
Richard Delgado THE TRAYVON MARTIN TRIAL - TWO COMMENTS AND AN OBSERVATION 47 John Marshall Law Review 1371 (Summer, 2014) I. Introduction: Doctrinal and Critical Analysis, Better Together Than Either Alone. 1371 A. Charging a less serious offense coupled with felony murder.. 1372 B. Jury Nullification. 1373 II. Conclusion. 1375 2014 Yes
Molly A. Schiffer WOMEN OF COLOR AND CRIME: A CRITICAL RACE THEORY PERSPECTIVE TO ADDRESS DISPARATE PROSECUTION 56 Arizona Law Review 1203 (2014) This Note seeks to acknowledge, explain, and offer a remedy to the problem of disparate prosecution of women of color. Women of color are disproportionately arrested and prosecuted for felonies around the country, and are overrepresented in the criminal justice system compared to their white women counterparts. Black and Native women are prosecuted... 2014 Yes
Kaaryn Gustafson DEGRADATION CEREMONIES AND THE CRIMINALIZATION OF LOW-INCOME WOMEN 3 UC Irvine Law Review 297 (May, 2013) This Article, a call for both empirical social scientists and critical race theorists to engage with each other in careful interpretive analysis, applies sociologist Harold Garfinkel's concept of ceremonial degradation to policies, practices, and proposals targeting low-income women of color in the United States. This Article offers several... 2013 Yes
Brandon L. Greene DEPRAVED NECESSITIES: PRISON PRIVATIZATION, EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND THE PATH TO PROFIT 7 Southern Region Black Law Students Association Law Journal 49 (Spring 2013) The prison industrial complex (PIC) generally, and the private prison industry (PPI) specifically, have a vested interest in keeping educational attainment at status quo levels. Critical race theory will be used as the framework to connect the economic and social strands that lead a child from an underperforming school to an overstretched criminal... 2013 Yes
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