Joseph William Singer Public Rights 38 Law and History Review 621 (August, 2020) The term public rights should be made to mean something . [E]verywhere a white man can go or travel the colored man should go. Edward Tinchant Rebecca J. Scott has unearthed an instructive episode in post-Civil War history that posed a question that we are still confronting today. Do places open to the public have an obligation to serve the public... 2020
Geoffrey Heeren Pulling Teeth: the State of Mandatory Immigration Detention 45 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 601 (Summer 2010) During the three years that Mohammad Azam Hussain was in the custody of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), he lost three teeth. The dentist who pulled those teeth suggested that Hussain would keep losing teeth until he received periodontal surgery. Hussain had developed gum disease while in DHS custody--a condition he blamed on poor... 2010
Adrian J. Rodríguez Punting on the Values of Federalism in the Immigration Arena? Evaluating Operation Linebacker, a State and Local Law Enforcement Program along the U.s.-mexico Border 108 Columbia Law Review 1226 (June, 2008) Attempting to combat drug trafficking and immigrant smuggling, a coalition of sheriffs' departments increased police presence along the United States's border with Mexico. Dubbed Operation Linebacker, sheriff deputies have increased patrols and, in some cases, set up vehicle checkpoints to deter crime along the border. In Texas, the Governor has... 2008
Ming Hsu Chen PURSUING CITIZENSHIP DURING COVID-19 93 University of Colorado Law Review 489 (Winter, 2022) Introduction. 490 I. Building Pathways to Citizenship. 491 A. Meaning of Citizenship. 492 B. Integration. 494 C. Enforcement. 496 II. Shifting Political Conditions and Implications for the Paths Not Taken. 500 A. Formal Paths to Citizenship. 503 B. Substantive Paths to Citizenship. 504 1. Social: From Alien to Noncitizen to Citizen. 504 2.... 2022
Raina Bhatt Pushing an End to Sanctuary Cities: Will it Happen? 22 Michigan Journal of Race and Law 139 (Fall, 2016) Sanctuary jurisdictions refer to city, town, and state governments (collectively, localities or local governments) that have passed provisions to limit their enforcement of federal immigration laws. Such local governments execute limiting provisions in order to bolster community cooperation, prevent racial discrimination, focus on local priorities... 2016
Alia Al-Khatib Putting a Hold on Ice: Why Law Enforcement Should Refuse to Honor Immigration Detainers 64 American University Law Review 109 (October, 2014) Beginning in the 1980s, immigration law began to place greater emphasis on noncitizens' past criminal convictions as grounds for deportation. This shift led to the deportation of many noncitizens with strong ties to the United States. In its effort to deport noncitizens with criminal convictions, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has... 2014
Kevin J. Fandl, J.D., Ph.D. Putting States out of the Immigration Law Enforcement Business 9 Harvard Law & Policy Review 529 (Summer 2015) A federal district court struck down Arizona's anti-immigrant smuggling law in November 2014, asserting that the law attempts to usurp federal immigration enforcement authority. The month prior, an en banc panel of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals tossed out a different Arizona anti-immigration law that denied bail to unlawful immigrants charged... 2015
Zsea Bowmani Queer Refuge: the Impacts of Homoantagonism and Racism in U.s. Asylum Law 18 Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law L. 1 (Spring, 2017) Introduction. 2 I. Institutionalized Discrimination in Immigration and Asylum Law. 4 A. Sexual and Racial Exclusions in U.S. Immigration Law. 5 1. Discrimination Against LGBTQ Immigrants. 7 2. Racial Exclusions. 11 B. U.S. and International Asylum Law: Ill-Fit for LGBTQ People. 14 1. The Quintessential Refugee is Not Queer. 15 2. The Process of... 2017
Elvia Rosales Arriola Queer, Undocumented, and Sitting in an Immigration Detention Center: a Post-obergefell Reflection 84 UMKC Law Review 617 (Spring, 2016) I left my country because I am gay and I don't fit into Honduras' society; I also fled for my life because I refused to do work for a drug trafficker and he threatened to kill me. Central American refugee (2014) On the day the Supreme Court decided, in Obergefell v. Hodges, that gay people too enjoy the fundamental right to marry, a moment for... 2016
Jeremiah A. Ho QUEERING BOSTOCK 29 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law 283 (2021) I. Introduction. 284 II. Conceptualizations of Anti-Queer Stereotypes. 289 A. Modern Historical Origins. 289 B. Anti-Queer Stereotyping Effects in Law. 295 III. Anti-Stereotyping Strategies. 301 A. Gender Discrimination. 303 B. LGBTQ Discrimination. 315 1. Animus in Romer. 316 2. Dignity in Lawrence. 321 3. Anti-Stereotyping in Windsor &... 2021
Elizabeth Brown , Inara Scott , Eric Yordy R Corps: When Should Corporate Values Receive Religious Protection? 17 Berkeley Business Law Journal 91 (2020) Introduction. 92 I. The Rise of Corporate Values and the Legal Challenges. 96 A. Brief History of Corporate Values. 97 B. Threats to Secular Brand Values. 102 1. Diversity and Inclusion. 102 2. Privacy. 104 3. Sanctuary. 105 4. Access to Reproductive Care. 105 II. When Do Values Become Religion?. 106 A. What is Religion?. 107 1. The Early Supreme... 2020
Edward A. Purcell, Jr. RACE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM: A TEAM-TAUGHT COURSE ON LAW AND RACE IN AMERICA 66 New York Law School Law Review 125 (2021/2022) Faculty members at New York Law School have long been moved by the continuing problems of race relations in America and by questions of how law and legal education might be able to contribute to their amelioration. During the 2015-2016 academic year, a group of more than twenty members of the NYLS faculty began a cooperative project to develop a... 2022
Kevin R. Johnson Race and Immigration Law and Enforcement: a Response to Is There a Plenary Power Doctrine? 14 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 289 (Winter, 2000) Professor Jack Chin has written a provocative paper that, as is characteristic of his work, has much to commend to it. His basic thesis is that the gulf between the constitutional law of immigration and that which applies to citizens is not as great as is frequently stated. To support this novel argument, he takes on the ambitious task of comparing... 2000
George A. Martínez Race and Immigration Law: a Paradigm Shift? 2000 University of Illinois Law Review 517 (2000) For many years, controversies impacting many areas of legal scholarship have left the field of immigration law virtually untouched. Thus, although other areas of law have felt the critique advanced by critical scholars, immigration law has proceeded as a virtually self-contained unit. In doing so, immigration law has developed a paradigm for legal... 2000
Lisa Sandoval Race and Immigration Law: a Troubling Marriage 7 Modern American 42 (Spring, 2011) The differences of race added greatly to the difficulties of the situation .. [T]hey remained strangers in the land, residing apart by themselves, and adhering to the customs and usages of their own country. It seemed impossible for them to assimilate with our people, or to make any change in their habits or modes of living. As they grew in... 2011
Elizabeth Keyes Race and Immigration, Then and Now: How the Shift to "Worthiness" Undermines the 1965 Immigration Law's Civil Rights Goals 57 Howard Law Journal 899 (Spring 2014) INTRODUCTION. 900 I. THE SHIFTING HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION RHETORIC. 902 A. Complicated Early Immigration History. 902 1. Founding Through 1880s. 903 2. 1880s Through 1965. 904 B. Attempting to Make Immigration a Civil Rights Issue: The 1965 Immigration Act. 905 C. Formal Equality, Functional Inequality Since 1965. 908 II. REFORM... 2014
Ric Simmons RACE AND REASONABLE SUSPICION 73 Florida Law Review 413 (March, 2021) The current political moment requires society to rethink the ways that race impacts policing. Many of the solutions will be political in nature, but legal reform is necessary as well. Law enforcement officers have a long history of considering a suspect's race when conducting criminal investigations. The civil rights movement and the progressive... 2021
Steven Bender , Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas , Keith Aoki Race and the California Recall: a Top Ten List of Ironies 16 Berkeley La Raza Law Journal 11 (Spring, 2005) Arnold Schwarzenegger's election as governor of California in the 2003 recall campaign is rife with cruel ironies. An immigrant himself, he beat the grandson of Mexican immigrants, Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante, by playing the race card, and managed to dodge allegations of his praise for Hitler as a strong leader. While the pundits say that... 2005
Jack M. Balkin RACE AND THE CYCLES OF CONSTITUTIONAL TIME 86 Missouri Law Review 443 (Spring, 2021) C1-2Table of Contents Table of Contents. 443 I. Introduction. 444 II. The Cycle of Regimes. 445 A. Political Regimes in the Antebellum Era. 446 B. The Republican Regime. 449 D. The New Deal/Civil Rights Regime. 454 E. The Reagan Regime and the Culture Wars. 456 III. The Cycle of Polarization and Depolarization. 463 A. Racial Polarization in... 2021
Donald S. Dobkin Race and the Shaping of U.s. Immigration Policy 28 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 19 (2009) The date is October 13, 2004, some 147 years after Chief Justice Roger Taney and the infamous Dred Scott case. Representing the United States government, Deputy Solicitor General Edwin Kneedler, stands before the United States Supreme Court and tells the Court that the nation needs to protect its borders and in doing so some noncitizens must be... 2009
Kevin R. Johnson Race Matters: Immigration Law and Policy Scholarship, Law in the Ivory Tower, and the Legal Indifference of the Race Critique 2000 University of Illinois Law Review 525 (2000) After the elimination of the discriminatory national origins quota system in 1965, the United States experienced a dramatic change in the demographics of immigration. Many more immigrants of color from developing nations have come to this country since the revolutionary reform. Over the decades following the elimination of the quota system, public... 2000
Bethany R. Berger RACE TO PROPERTY: RACIAL DISTORTIONS OF PROPERTY LAW, 1634 TO TODAY 64 Arizona Law Review 619 (Fall, 2022) Race shaped property law for everyone in the United States, and we are all the poorer for it. This transformation began in the colonial era, when demands for Indian land annexation and a slave-based economy created new legal innovations in recording, foreclosure, and commodification of property. It continued in the antebellum era, when these same... 2022
George A. Martinez Race, American Law and the State of Nature 112 West Virginia Law Review 799 (Spring, 2010) L1-2Abstract L3799 I. Introduction. 800 II. State of Nature Theory: Hobbes and Spinoza. 802 A. Hobbes. 803 B. Spinoza. 805 III. Racial Minorities in the State of Nature. 806 A. African-Americans and the State of Nature. 806 B. Native Americans and the State of Nature. 811 C. Mexican-Americans and Lack of Constraint. 815 D. Immigration and Plenary... 2010
Girma Parris, PhD Race, America's Multiple Traditions, and Incorporating Immigrants in the Twenty-first Century 55 Tulsa Law Review 263 (Winter, 2020) Abigail Fisher Williamson, Welcoming New Americans? Local Governments and Immigrant Incorporation (University of Chicago Press 2018). Pp. 368. Hardcover $97.50. PaperbackK $32.50. Chris Zepeda-Millán, Latino Mass Mobilization: Immigration, Racialization, and Activism (Cambridge University Press 2017). Pp. 308. Hardcover $105.00. Paperback $29.99.... 2020
Susan M. Akram , Kevin R. Johnson Race, Civil Rights, and Immigration Law after September 11, 2001: the Targeting of Arabs and Muslims 58 New York University Annual Survey of American Law 295 (2002) Although only time will tell, September 11, 2001, promises to be a watershed in the history of the United States. After the tragic events of that day, including the hijacking of four commercial airliners for use as weapons of mass destruction, America went to war on many fronts, including but not limited to military action in Afghanistan. As... 2002
Catherine Powell Race, Gender, and Nation in an Age of Shifting Borders: the Unstable Prisms of Motherhood and Masculinity 24 UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs 133 (Spring, 2020) C1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 134 I. Nationhood, Borders, and Fluidity. 140 II. The Welfare Cheat Narrative: Using the Race and Gender of Latina Mothers to Shift Borders Inward. 142 A. The New Welfare Queen. 143 B. Shifting the Border Inward: A New Way of Understanding the Family Separation Policy. 147 III. The Criminal and the... 2020
Eric S. Fish RACE, HISTORY, AND IMMIGRATION CRIMES 107 Iowa Law Review 1051 (March, 2022) ABSTRACT: The two most frequently charged federal crimes are immigration crimes: the misdemeanor of entering the United States without inspection, and the felony of reentering the United States after deportation. Federal prosecutors charge tens of thousands of people with these two crimes each year. In 2019, these two crimes comprised a majority of... 2022
Joan Fitzpatrick Race, Immigration, and Legal Scholarship: a Response to Kevin Johnson 2000 University of Illinois Law Review 603 (2000) The harshest measures of contemporary American immigration law disproportionately affect persons of color. At the same time, persons of color have become the primary subjects of migration to the United States and are thus the main beneficiaries of the substantial benefits the U.S. immigration system offers. The extent to which racism, conscious or... 2000
Victor Romero Race, Immigration, and the Department of Homeland Security 19 Saint John's Journal of Legal Commentary 51 (Fall 2004) Before I begin, I would like to thank Peter and Maureen for thinking of me and inviting me to participate. This is a rare thing for me because usually when I attend these symposia, I am one of many academics on panels, but today I am the only academic on this morning's panels and so this is a fun and new experience for me. I teach Immigration Law... 2004
Natsu Taylor Saito RACE, INDIGENEITY, AND MIGRATION 117 AJIL Unbound 43 (2023) Race, indigeneity, and migration are integrally related in international law. This relationship can be traced to their origins in a legal system dedicated to facilitating European colonialism and imperial expansion. International law has constructed racial difference and deployed racialized hierarchies to determine who would be permitted to migrate... 2023
Khiara M. Bridges Race, Pregnancy, and the Opioid Epidemic: White Privilege and the Criminalization of Opioid Use During Pregnancy 133 Harvard Law Review 770 (January, 2020) C1-2CONTENTS Introduction. 772 Formulations of White Privilege. 778 I. The Opioid Epidemic. 785 A. Race and the Opioid Epidemic. 788 B. Pregnancy and the Opioid Epidemic. 793 II. Substance Use During Pregnancy and the Law. 798 A. Civil Systems. 798 B. Criminal Systems. 803 1. Alabama. 810 2. South Carolina. 811 3. Tennessee. 812 III. The... 2020
Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries, Monte Mills 'Race, Racism, and American Law': a Seminar from the Indigenous, Black, and Immigrant Legal Perspectives 21 Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice Just. 1 (2019) Introduction. 2 I. Our Approach: Themes, Goals, and Collaboration. 9 A. Common Threads and Themes. 9 B. Self-Disclosure, Objectivity, and Reflective Practice. 12 C. Collaboration. 17 D. Lawyering Skills. 19 II. The Class: Objectives, Schedule, and Assessments. 20 III. How the Class Unfolded: Issues and Related Events. 26 IV. Lessons Learned. 28... 2019
Liav Orgad , Theodore Ruthizer Race, Religion and Nationality in Immigration Selection: 120 Years after the Chinese Exclusion Case 26 Constitutional Commentary 237 (Spring 2010) 120 years ago, in May 1889, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the power of exclusion of foreigners being an incident of sovereignty . . . cannot be granted away or restrained. Sixty years later, in January 1950, at the height of the Cold War, the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed the plenary power doctrine by holding that it is not within the... 2010
Natsu Taylor Saito RACE, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL IDENTITY REVIEW OF SAHAR AZIZ, THE RACIAL MUSLIM: WHEN RACISM QUASHES RELIGIOUS FREEDOM (UC PRESS, 2022) 50 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 169 (March, 2023) C1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 169 I. Being Muslim in the United States. 171 II. Structural Drivers of Islamophobia. 173 III. National Identity in a Settler State. 175 Conclusion. 180 2023
Saby Ghoshray Race, Symmetry and False Consciousness: Piercing the Veil of America's Anti-immigration Policy 16 Temple Political & Civil Rights Law Review 335 (Spring 2007) Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! Emma Lazarus [T]he streets of our country were taken over today by people who don't belong here. . . . Taxpayers who have surrendered highways,... 2007
Kevin R. Johnson Race, the Immigration Laws, and Domestic Race Relations: a "Magic Mirror" into the Heart of Darkness 73 Indiana Law Journal 1111 (Fall, 1998) L1-2Introduction 1112 I. The History of Racial Exclusion in the U.S. Immigration Laws. 1119 A. From Chinese Exclusion to General Asian Subordination. 1120 1. Chinese Exclusion and Reconstruction. 1122 2. Japanese Internment and Brown v. Board of Education. 1124 B. The National Origins Quota System. 1127 C. Modern Racial Exclusion. 1131 1. The War... 1998
Cyra Akila Choudhury RACECRAFT AND IDENTITY IN THE EMERGENCE OF ISLAM AS A RACE 91 University of Cincinnati Law Review 1 (2022) Introduction. 3 I: The Myth of Race and Reality of Fluid Racial Identities. 6 The Myth of Race. 6 Fluid Identities and Multiple Subordinations. 10 Muslim/Islamicized Identities as Cosynthetic Identities. 15 II. A Genealogy of Islam-as-Race. 18 Thread 1: Connecting Black Islam from Slavery to Anti-Islam Immigration Laws and the Civil Rights... 2022
Bennett Capers , Gregory Day RACE-ING ANTITRUST 121 Michigan Law Review 523 (February, 2023) Antitrust law has a race problem. To spot an antitrust violation, courts inquire into whether an act has degraded consumer welfare. Since anticompetitive practices are often assumed to enhance consumer welfare, antitrust offenses are rarely found. Key to this framework is that antitrust treats all consumers monolithically; that consumers are... 2023
Patrick Weil Races at the Gate: a Century of Racial Distinctions in American Immigration Policy (1865-1965) 15 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 625 (Summer, 2001) Traditionally, scholars who study the history of American immigration policy adhere to one of two paths. The first path distinguishes between restrictionist or racist and liberal periods or ideologies. The other path, a more institutional approach, differentiates between a period without control, beginning with the foundation of the republic... 2001
Atinuke O. Adediran RACIAL ALLIES 90 Fordham Law Review 2151 (April, 2022) Racial allies are white individuals and institutions that actively work to dismantle systems of racial inequality and the consequences of poverty that disproportionately impact communities of color and that are willing to both confer and share power with members of subjugated groups. There is no other sector of the legal profession that professes... 2022
Kevin D. Brown , Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt RACIAL AND ETHNIC ANCESTRY OF THE NATION'S BLACK LAW STUDENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM THE LSSSE SURVEY 22 Berkeley Journal of African-American Law & Policy 1 (2022) Introduction. 2 I. Changing Racial and Ethnic Ancestries of Black People in the United States Since Affirmative Action Began. 6 A. Historical Race and Ethnicity of Black People at the Commencement of Affirmative Action. 6 B. Current Racial and Ethnic Ancestry of Black People. 8 C. Impact of Change in Census Definitions on the Ability to Collect... 2022
Elizabeth D. Katz Racial and Religious Democracy: Identity and Equality in Midcentury Courts 72 Stanford Law Review 1467 (June, 2020) Abstract. In our current political moment, discrimination against minority racial and religious groups routinely makes headlines. Though some press coverage of these occurrences acknowledges parallels and links between racial and religious prejudices, these intersections remain undertheorized in legal and historical scholarship. Because scholars... 2020
E. Tendayi Achiume RACIAL BORDERS 110 Georgetown Law Journal 445 (March, 2022) This Article explores the treatment of race and racial justice in dominant liberal democratic legal discourse and theory concerned with international borders. It advances two analytical claims. The first is that contemporary national borders of the international order--an order that remains structured by imperial inequity--are inherently racial.... 2022
Stewart Chang RACIAL CONTAGION: ANTI-ASIAN NATIONALISM, THE STATE OF EMERGENCY, AND EXCLUSION 9 Belmont Law Review 486 (Spring, 2022) Introduction. 486 I. Contagion, Yellow Peril, and Exclusion. 491 II. Korematsu, Internment, and the Enemy Within. 501 III. The Chinese Virus and the COVID-19 Travel Bans. 506 Conclusion. 510 2022
Michelle Foster , Timnah Rachel Baker RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN NATIONALITY LAWS: A DOCTRINAL BLIND SPOT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW? 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 83 (January, 2021) Statelessness has historically been overlooked by the international community, but it is now a significant focus of the work of academics, advocates, and international institutions. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' campaign to end statelessness by 2024 is now past its half-way point. Yet, while it is understood that statelessness... 2021
Rachel F. Moran RACIAL EQUALITY, RELIGIOUS LIBERTY, AND THE COMPLICATIONS OF PLURALISM 50 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 149 (March, 2023) C1-2Table of Contents I. Historical Injustices: The Meaning of Race. 150 II. Contemporary Wrongs and the Role of Racialization. 155 III. Demographic Change, Pluralism Anxiety, and the Challenges for Equality and Liberty. 162 IV. Conclusion. 166 2023
Kevin R. Johnson Racial Hierarchy, Asian Americans and Latinos as "Foreigners," and Social Change: Is Law the Way to Go? 76 Oregon Law Review 347 (Summer 1997) A symposium entitled Citizenship and Its Discontents could not be more timely. The end of the twentieth century has been marked by a lengthy debate in the United States, as well as in nations around the world, on citizenship and national identity. In response to mounting concerns about changes attributed to new immigrants, Congress in 1996... 1997
Jessica Dixon Weaver RACIAL MYOPIA IN [FAMILY] LAW 132 Yale Law Journal Forum 1086 (4/30/2023) ABSTRACT. Racial Myopia in [Family] Law presents a critique of Family Law for the One-Hundred-Year Life, an Article that claims that age myopia within family law fails older adults and prevents them from creating legal bonds with other adults outside the traditional marital model. This Response posits that racial myopia is a common yet complex... 2023
David A. Harris Racial Profiling 34-WTR Criminal Justice 10 (Winter, 2020) The beginning of 2019 marked 22 years since the introduction of the first piece of proposed legislation on racial profiling: the Traffic Stops Statistics Act of 1997, H.R. 118. Passed unanimously by the US House of Representatives in March 1998, this bill constituted the first attempt by any legislative body to come to grips with what had become... 2020
Lupe S. Salinas , Fernando Colon-Navarro Racial Profiling as a Means of Thwarting the Alleged Latino Security Threat 37 Thurgood Marshall Law Review Rev. 5 (Fall, 2011) Not all Latinos are undocumented persons, and not all undocumented persons are Latinos. Throughout the history of Latino presence and immigration to the United States, the open welcome extended by many Americans eventually developed into rejection and an effort to terminate the invitation. Persons of Mexican ethnicities were initially welcomed... 2011
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