Simone Lieban Levine NOT A GIRL, NOT YET A WOMAN: THE LEGAL LIMBO OF BEING A PARENT BEFORE BECOMING AN ADULT 37 Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice 75 (2022) Introduction. 76 I. The Reality of Underage Pregnancy. 80 A. Babies Having Babies: Blame, Shame, and Social Policy. 81 B. Putting It in Perspective: Statistics Related to Young Parenthood. 83 1. Social Outcomes for Young Parents and Their Children. 84 2. Birth Rates According to Age and Race. 85 3. Young Parenthood and Medical Care, Poverty, and... 2022
Shanna C. Knight OREGON'S NEW INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT: HIGHLIGHTS FOR IDAHO PRACTITIONERS 65-FEB Advocate 22 (February, 2022) As an Idaho practitioner, unless you represent a tribe, you might be wondering why you should care about Oregon's new Indian Child Welfare Act (ORICWA). After all, Idaho practitioners are already required to follow the federal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA). If so, I would answer first that Oregon's new law demonstrates best practices that... 2022
Matthew L.M. Fletcher , Randall F. Khalil PREEMPTION, COMMANDEERING, AND THE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT 2022 Wisconsin Law Review 1199 (2022) This year (2022), the Supreme Court agreed to review wide-ranging constitutional challenges to the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) brought by the State of Texas and three non-Indian foster families in the October 2022 Term. The Fifth Circuit, sitting en banc, held that certain provisions of ICWA violated the anti-commandeering principle implied in... 2022
Angela Onwuachi-Willig , Anthony V. Alfieri RACIAL TRAUMA IN CIVIL RIGHTS REPRESENTATION 120 Michigan Law Review 1701 (June, 2022) Narratives of trauma told by clients and communities of color have inspired an increasing number of civil rights and antiracist lawyers and academics to call for more trauma-informed training for law students and lawyers. These advocates have argued not only for greater trauma-sensitive practices and trauma-centered interventions on behalf of... 2022
Chris Gottlieb REMEMBERING WHO FOSTER CARE IS FOR: PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION AND OTHER MISCONCEPTIONS AND MISSED OPPORTUNITIES IN FULTON v. CITY OF PHILADELPHIA 44 Cardozo Law Review 1 (October, 2022) The Supreme Court's opinion in Fulton v. City of Philadelphia, which held that a Catholic foster care agency could refuse to accept gay foster parents, and virtually all commentary on the case, are flawed by a profound misunderstanding of key aspects of the foster care system. The case's role in the broader culture war between religious rights... 2022
Whitney Saunders RESISTING INDIGENOUS ERASURE IN RHODE ISLAND: THE NEED FOR COMPULSORY NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY IN RHODE ISLAND SCHOOLS 27 Roger Williams University Law Review 379 (Spring, 2022) Before we begin, I want to take a moment to reflect on the lands on which we reside. We are coming from many places, physically and remotely, and we want to acknowledge the ancestral homelands and traditional territories of Indigenous and Native peoples who have been here since time immemorial and to recognize that we must continue to build our... 2022
Bill Piatt RESPECTING THE IDENTITY AND DIGNITY OF ALL INDIGENOUS AMERICANS 6 Howard Human & Civil Rights Law Review 83 (2021-2022) The United States government attempted to eliminate Native Americans through outright physical extermination and later by the eradication of Indian identity through a boarding school system and other paper genocide mechanisms. One of those mechanisms is the recognition of some Natives but not the majority, including those who ancestors were... 2022
Sara E. Hill RESTORING OKLAHOMA: JUSTICE AND THE RULE OF LAW POST-MCGIRT 57 Tulsa Law Review 553 (Spring, 2022) I. Introduction. 554 II. Criminal Jurisdiction in a Post-McGirt World: The Creation of Modern Criminal Jurisdictional Rules in Indian Country. 558 A. Evolution of Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country. 559 III. The Post-McGirt Toolkit: Jurisdictional Problem-solving in Indian Country. 565 A. Public Law 280. 565 B. Cross-deputation Agreements. 567... 2022
David H. Moore , Michalyn Steele REVITALIZING TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY IN TREATYMAKING 97 New York University Law Review 137 (April, 2022) In the current model of federal-Indian relations, the United States claims a plenary legislative power, as putative guardian, to regulate Indian tribes. Under this model, tribes are essentially wards in a state of pupilage. But the federal-tribal relationship was not always so. Originally, the federal government embraced, even promoted, a more... 2022
Keila Mayberry SEARCHING FOR JUSTICE FOR AUSTRALIA'S STOLEN GENERATIONS 22 Chicago Journal of International Law 661 (Winter, 2022) Until the early 1970s, Australian federal and state government agencies forcibly removed tens of thousands of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families and placed them up for adoption or in group homes and church missions. These children are known as the Stolen Generations. Domestic remedies have proven insufficient in... 2022
The Rutgers Journal of Law and Public Policy, February 10, 2022 SPRING 2022 SYMPOSIUM TRANSCRIPT 19 Rutgers Journal of Law & Public Policy 425 (Spring, 2022) On February 10, 2022, the Rutgers Journal of Law and Public Policy hosted the Reforming and Restructuring Child Welfare Law in New Jersey and Abroad Symposium. Speakers included moderator Randi Mandelbaum, Distinguished Clinical Professor of Law at Rutgers Law School and Annamay Sheppard Scholar; Sydney Groll, Independence Foundation Public... 2022
Angelique EagleWoman, Wambdi A. Was'teWinyan, Dominic J. Terry, Lani Petrulo., Dr. Gavin Clarkson, Angela Levasseur, Leah R. Sixkiller, Jack Rice STORYTELLING AND TRUTH-TELLING: PERSONAL REFLECTIONS ON THE NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE IN LAW SCHOOLS 48 Mitchell Hamline Law Review 704 (May, 2022) I. Introduction. 705 II. Becoming a Native Lawyer. 710 A. Ya'at'eeh!. 710 B. Don't Be A Victim of Your Environment. 710 C. Work Hard, and Never Give Up. 711 D. The Scenic Route. 711 E. So Close, Yet So Far. 712 F. The Bar Exam Does Not Define You!. 713 G. Ya'at'eeh, My Name is Dominic Terry. 713 III. Barred: A Personal Reflection on the Native... 2022
Deirdre M. Smith TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS AS A PRIVATE REMEDY: RATIONALES, REALITIES, AND ALTERNATIVES 72 Syracuse Law Review 1173 (2022) Introduction. 1174 I. Defining Private Termination of Parental Rights. 1178 A. Defining Parental Rights. 1178 B. Defining Termination of Parental Rights. 1182 C. Distinguishing Public Versus Private Termination of Parental Rights. 1185 II. The Contexts in which a Parent's Rights Can be Terminated Without Direct State Involvement. 1190 A.... 2022
Barbara Fedders THE ANTI-PARENT JUVENILE COURT 69 UCLA Law Review 746 (May, 2022) This Article identifies and analyzes features of the juvenile delinquency court that harm the people on whom children most heavily depend: their parents. By negatively affecting a child's family--creating financial stress, undermining a parent's central role in rearing her child, and damaging the parent-child bond--these parent-harming features... 2022
Bethany Sullivan, Jennifer Turner THE CONTINUED IMPACT OF CARCIERI ON THE RESTORATION OF TRIBAL HOMELANDS: IN NEW ENGLAND AND BEYOND 27 Roger Williams University Law Review 322 (Spring, 2022) In 2009, the United States Supreme Court decided Carcieri v. Salazar, a case involving the Department of the Interior's (the Department or Interior) authority under section 5 of the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) to acquire land into trust for the Narragansett Indian Tribe. Prior to the Supreme Court's decision, Interior had long interpreted the... 2022
Timothy Sandefur THE FEDERALISM PROBLEMS WITH THE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT 26 Texas Review of Law and Politics 429 (Spring, 2022) Author's Note. 430 Introduction. 430 I. What ICWA Does. 431 II. ICWA Exceeds the Commerce Clause. 435 A. The One and Only Commerce Clause. 435 B. The Non-textual Plenary Power. 437 C. Even Under the Treaty Power, ICWA Would Be Unconstitutional. 448 III. ICWA Violates the Anti-commandeering Principle. 453 A. The Anti-commandeering Principle. 453... 2022
Adam Crepelle THE LAW AND ECONOMICS OF CRIME IN INDIAN COUNTRY 110 Georgetown Law Journal 569 (March, 2022) C1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 569 I. Crime in Indian Country. 576 II. Tribal Sovereignty and Criminal Justice. 579 III. The Economics of Crime. 586 IV. The Law and Economics of Crime in Indian Country. 589 V. Solutions. 601 a. jurisdictional fix. 603 b. more cops. 606 c. improve tribal economies. 609 Conclusion. 611 2022
Robert G. Natelson THE ORIGINAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE INDIAN COMMERCE CLAUSE: AN UPDATE 23 Federalist Society Review 209 (########) The Congress shall have Power . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes. C1-2Table of Contents I. Recent and Pending Litigation. 211 II. Previous Scholarship. 212 III. Goals of this Article. 213 IV. Some Principles of Originalist Analysis. 214 V. The Constitutional Scheme: Separation of... 2022
Kace Rodwell , Michael Colbert Smith , Stephanie Hudson TRIBUTES TO STEVE HAGER 46 American Indian Law Review 337 (2022) I first met Steve Hager at Sovereignty Symposium when he was presenting on the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) for the Juvenile Law panel. I was just a 1L law student then, inspired by his passion for advocating for Tribal families and enforcing laws enacted to protect them. I knew then that I wanted to work alongside Steve and would later get that... 2022
The Honorable Raquel Montoya-Lewis WHY OUR STORIES MATTER: A PERSPECTIVE ON THE RESTATEMENT FROM THE STATE BENCH 97 Washington Law Review 713 (October, 2022) 34TH ANNUAL INDIAN LAW SYMPOSIUM RESTATEMENT OF THE LAW OF AMERICAN INDIANS APRIL 2, 2022 I'm really thrilled and honored to be able to speak to all of you today. I did kind of come and go yesterday throughout the presentations and was really sort of star-struck by the incredible speakers that you have already heard from over the last day, and was... 2022
Roopa Bala Singh YOGA AS PROPERTY: A CENTURY OF UNITED STATES YOGA COPYRIGHTS, 1937-2021 99 Denver Law Review 725 (Summer, 2022) Public debate on yoga as property fixates on whether yoga should be owned, asking if yoga can be Indian property. Framed as such, the public discourse obscures a century-long, ravenous arc of yoga ownership in the United States, accumulated by whiteness, beginning in the early twentieth century. What do the stories of yoga in American law tell us... 2022
Hannah Duncan YOUTH ALWAYS MATTERS: REPLACING EIGHTH AMENDMENT PSEUDOSCIENCE WITH AN AGE-BASED BAN ON JUVENILE LIFE WITHOUT PAROLE 131 Yale Law Journal 1936 (April, 2022) The Supreme Court has placed restrictions on courts' ability to impose life-with-out-parole sentences on juveniles. Most recently, Jones v. Mississippi underscored how existing Eighth Amendment protections fail to extend categorical protection to all juveniles. Tracing the history of intrachildhood classifications, this Note argues that Jones's... 2022
Subini Ancy Annamma , Jamelia Morgan YOUTH INCARCERATION AND ABOLITION 45 New York University Review of Law and Social Change 471 (2022) The COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the dangers of the juvenile legal system; this should make it harder to look away from the societal inequities that are exacerbated by youth incarceration. Indeed, the current moment, including the unprecedented nationwide protests in response to the murders of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor in summer 2020, has... 2022
Maci Burke A CALL TO CONGRESS: A CONSTITUTIONAL INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT IS NOT A FLAWLESS INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT 39 Minnesota Journal of Law & Inequality 191 (Winter, 2021) In 1978, Congress enacted the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to regulate the removal and placement of Indian children in foster care, the termination of parental rights, preadoptive placement, and adoptive placement. The ICWA was enacted to address rising concerns over abusive child welfare practices that resulted in the separation of large... 2021
Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely , Stacy L. Leeds A FAMILIAR CROSSROADS: MCGIRT v. OKLAHOMA AND THE FUTURE OF THE FEDERAL INDIAN LAW CANON 51 New Mexico Law Review 300 (Summer, 2021) Federal Indian law forms part of the bedrock of American jurisprudence. Indeed, critical parts of the pre-civil war constitutional canon were defined in Federal Indian law cases that simultaneously provided legal justification for American westward expansion onto unceded Indian lands. As a result, Federal Indian law makes up an inextricable part of... 2021
Sara L. Ochs A NATIONAL TRUTH COMMISSION FOR NATIVE AMERICANS 36 Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender & Society 1 (Spring, 2021) Native Americans have endured centuries of genocide. What began as a systemic attempt by European colonialists to decimate the indigenous population subsequently evolved into more subtle, devastating acts intended to destroy indigenous culture. Today, Native Americans remain the subject of ongoing discrimination and human rights abuses, especially... 2021
April Olson A SEAT AT THE TABLE: TRIBAL LEGAL REPRESENTATION IN OUT-OF-STATE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT CASES 68-APR Federal Lawyer 38 (March/April, 2021) They made me stand. The small courtroom was packed with the usual parties in an Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) case: attorneys and social workers and a few observers who took up all the remaining seats. I stood against a wall while we waited for the judge to begin oral argument on my motion. After the judge called on me, I expected someone would... 2021
Lisa Kelly ABOLITION OR REFORM: CONFRONTING THE SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN "CHILD WELFARE" AND THE CARCERAL STATE 17 Stanford Journal of Civil Rights & Civil Liberties 255 (June, 2021) The child welfare system and the carceral state are engaged in a symbiotic relationship that shares many of the same hallmarks of surveillance, violence, and control of Black people. Just as police have been shown to inflict violence on Black people in the name of community safety, so too child welfare inflicts deep and lasting harms,... 2021
Theresa Rocha Beardall, J.D., Ph.D. , Frank Edwards, Ph.D. ABOLITION, SETTLER COLONIALISM, AND THE PERSISTENT THREAT OF INDIAN CHILD WELFARE 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 533 (July, 2021) Family separation is a defining feature of the U.S. government's policy to forcibly assimilate and dismantle American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) tribal nations. The historical record catalogues the violence of this separation in several ways, including the mass displacement of Native children into boarding schools throughout the 19th century... 2021
Delight E. Satter , Laura M. Mercer Kollar , Public Health Writing Group on Missing or Murdered Indigenous Persons, Debra O'Gara ‘Djik Sook’ , Senior Health Scientist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Scientist, Centers for Disease C AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE KNOWLEDGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH FOR THE PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MISSING OR MURDERED INDIGENOUS PERSONS 69 Department of Justice Journal of Federal Law and Practice 149 (March, 2021) Violence against American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women, children, two-spirit individuals, men, and elders is a serious public health issue. Violence may result in death (homicide), and exposure to violence has lasting effects on the physical and mental health of individuals, including depression and anxiety, substance abuse, chronic and... 2021
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