AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Term
Patrice H. Kunesh Transcending Frontiers: Indian Child Welfare in the United States 16 Boston College Third World Law Journal 17 (Winter, 1996) Let us put our minds together and see what kind of future we can build for our children. These words were spoken by Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota leader, following his peoples' victory over the army of the United States at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876. In the struggle to protect the Lakota lands against colonial expansion, Sitting Bull; Search Snippet: ...Boston College Third World Law Journal Winter, 1996 TRANSCENDING FRONTIERS: INDIAN CHILD WELFARE IN THE UNITED STATES Patrice H. Kunesh [FNa] Copyright... 1996 Child Welfare
David Ray Papke Transracial Adoption in the United States: the Reflection and Reinforcement of Racial Hierarchy 15 Journal of Law and Family Studies 57 (2013) Transracial adoption strikes most as an appealing undertaking. People who have adopted a child of another race or been adopted by parents of another race are usually delighted by the results and consider themselves truly fortunate. People who have participated in a transracial adoption might even assert that their families have transcended race and; Search Snippet: ...history in the United States. The institution of white-run boarding schools for Native American children dates back to the 1800s. In the late 1800s, the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs developed a whole network of boarding schools, in which the children were supposed to develop an... 2013  
David Ray Papke Transracial Adoption in the United States: the Reflection and Reinforcement of Racial Hierarchy 2013 Utah Law Review 1041 (2013) Transracial adoption strikes most as an appealing undertaking. People who have adopted a child of another race or been adopted by parents of another race are usually delighted by the results and consider themselves truly fortunate. People who have participated in a transracial adoption might even assert that their families have transcended race and; Search Snippet: ...history in the United States. The institution of white-run boarding schools for Native American children dates back to the 1800s. In the late 1800s, the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs developed a whole network of boarding schools, in which the children were supposed to develop an... 2013  
Margaret Howard Transracial Adoption: Analysis of the Best Interests Standard 59 Notre Dame Law Review 503 (1984) The child placement system in the United States is governed by the best interests principle: that intervention and placement or other disposition should be carried out only to further the best interests of the affected child. This principle is sometimes stated as the standard for decisiona ruleand at other times as the goal the system is intended; Search Snippet: ...and ultimate decline [FN2] of transracial placements of black and Indian children. [FN3] After discussing the competing interests involved in transracial adoptions... 1984  
Gwen N. Westerman, PhD, Minnesota State University, Mankato Treaties Are More than a Piece of Paper: Why Words Matter 10 Albany Government Law Review 293 (2017) Minnesota is a Dakota place. The Dakota people's place in Minnesota. Is there a difference between those two statements? The first is a simple declarative sentence that identifies Minnesota. The second is a dependent phrase that locates the people in the place but is lacking context. This transformation of syntax also transforms the meaning. In; Search Snippet: ...passed that forbade Indians and whites to marry. Day schools, boarding schools, and industrial schools were built and filled with Indian children removed from the influence of their families. [FN78] My grandparents... 2017  
Richard Monette, James M. Grijalva, P.S. Deloria, Judith V. Royster, Rebecca Tsosie Treating Tribes as States under the Clean Water Act: the Good and the Bad 71 North Dakota Law Review 497 (1995) MR. MONETTE: Good morning. Nice to see you all again. We have a slight change in the panel, as you can see. Let me just first mention that John Harbison has, I understand, taken ill and probably won't be with us today. So he could probably use some of our good thoughts. And Sam Deloria will sit in his place to help respond. Our topic is, as you can; Search Snippet: ...are dealing with Indian Gaming Acts, Indian Civil Rights Acts, Indian Child Welfare Acts, their sovereign spheres are overlapping with the U.S... 1995  
Matthew L.M. Fletcher Tribal Consent 8 Stanford Journal of Civil Rights & Civil Liberties 45 (April, 2012) I. Tribal Consent Prior to the Modern Era of Indian Affairs (1789-1959). 55 A. The Non-Consensual Incorporation of Indian Tribes into the American Polity. 55 B. Exclusion of Indian Tribes. 57 C. Living with (and Incorporating) Indian Tribes. 64 II. Theories of Federal Control over Indian Affairs. 73 A. A Quick History of the Rise of Congressional; Search Snippet: ...original homelands. [FN121] Coupled with aggressive cultural attacks such as boarding schools, [FN122] and through immersion in large numbers of non- Indians, many of these tribal communities (mostly those in Michigan) were... 2012  
Ryan Dreveskracht Tribal Court Jurisdiction and Native Nation Economies: a Trip down the Rabbit Hole 67 National Lawyers Guild Review 65 (Summer, 2010) Lance Morgan is the chief executive officer of Ho-Chunk Inc., the economic development corporation of the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska. In 1994 Ho-Chunk Inc. was founded using seed money from a gaming enterprise opened two years earlier in order to provide long-term economic growth to the perpetually impoverished Indian nation. In 2001 Ho-Chunk; Search Snippet: ...federal official, to kill the Indian, save the man. [FN158] Indian children were removed from home to be educated in government and church-run boarding schools throughout the United States[,] where youth were often sexually... 2010  
Robert N. Clinton Tribal Courts and the Federal Union 26 Willamette Law Review 841 (Fall, 1990) Since first contact with Euro-American society, Indian tribal communities have struggled for recognition of their political autonomy and rights with Euro-American communities that neither understood nor respected the social organization and government of tribal groups. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, some Euro-Americans claimed; Search Snippet: ...umberlla of the federal union. [FN49] Indeed, the allotment program, Indian citizenship, and the forced amalgamation of sovereign Indian communities into the American polity through other means (such as coercive boarding schools [FN50] ) are best understood as particularly brutal and destructive... 1990  
Addie C. Rolnick Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction Beyond Citizenship and Blood 39 American Indian Law Review 337 (2014-2015) Introduction. 338 I. A Patchwork of Rules. 348 A. Jurisdiction Ends at the Indian. 352 B. Jurisdiction Extends to Nonmember Indians. 360 1. Duro v. Reina. 361 2. The Duro Fix. 364 C. Who Is an Indian?. 369 1. Challenges to the Duro Fix. 372 2. Federal Court Review of Tribal Jurisdiction over Unenrolled People. 376 3. Federal Jurisdiction; Search Snippet: ...Tribal Law 439, 444 (Navajo 1999) Given the United States Indian education policy of sending Indian children to boarding schools, Indians in the armed services, modern population mobility, and other factors, there are high rates of intertribal intermarriage among American Indians. id. at 447-51 (discussing history of Indians from other... 2015  
Kelly Gaines-Stoner Tribal Judicial Sovereignty: a Tireless and Tenacious Effort to Address Domestic Violence 53 Family Law Quarterly 167 (Fall, 2019) As of 2018, 573 Native American tribes were legally recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) of the United States. Of the 573 tribes, 231 tribes are located in Alaska. The health and wellbeing of all Native families is in peril as Native women and their children are exposed to domestic violence and other multiple forms of violence in Indian; Search Snippet: ...colonization movement only served as an opportunity to further victimize Native women and children by diminishment in the status of women, destruction and disease, boarding schools, and learned violence. While tribal cultures vary considerably, common... 2019  
Cruz Reynoso , William C. Kidder Tribal Membership and State Law Affirmative Action Bans: Can Membership in a Federally Recognized American Indian Tribe Be a plus Factor in Admissions at Public Universities in California and Washington? 27 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 29 (2008) The group at the statistical bottom of all the scales thought to measure lack of opportunity is American Indians. A line of viable Supreme Court authority holds that equal protection of the law does not require strict scrutiny of laws singling out Indians for advantage or disadvantage, when Indians is understood to mean members of federally; Search Snippet: ...the appeal court applied strict scrutiny in holding that the Indian Child Welfare Act--which directs that when a child of a... 2008  
Lauren van Schilfgaarde, Aila Hoss, Ann E. Tweedy, Sarah Deer, Stacy Leeds TRIBAL NATIONS AND ABORTION ACCESS: A PATH FORWARD 46 Harvard Journal of Law & Gender 1 (Winter, 2023) I. Introduction. 2 II. Historical Backdrop for Reproductive Autonomy. 8 III. Abortion Care in Indian Country Today. 17 A. Federal Indian Health System. 19 B. Facility Abortion Policies. 22 C. Indigenous Access to Abortion Care. 26 D. Views of Abortion Across Indian Country. 29 IV. Navigating Jurisdiction in Indian Country. 31 A. Criminal... 2023  
Angelique EagleWoman , (Wambdi A. WasteWin) Tribal Nations and Tribalist Economics: the Historical and Contemporary Impacts of Intergenerational Material Poverty and Cultural Wealth Within the United States 49 Washburn Law Journal 805 (Spring 2010) Let us put our minds together to see what we can build for our children. Itancan Tatanka Iyotaka (Chief Sitting Bull) The poor quality of life and material impoverishment that is the situation for the majority of tribal citizens within the United States is unacceptable, especially in light of the U.S. policies that have created the poverty; Search Snippet: ...of tribal government. The aftermath of the most devastating U.S. Indian policies included: removal from tribal homelands, [FN57] the kidnapping of... 2010  
Lorelei Laird Tribal Rights 101-MAY ABA Journal 15 (May, 2015) When South Dakota's Pennington County petitioned to take custody of Madonna Pappan's children, the hearing lasted slightly more than 60 seconds. Pappan and her husband were not permitted to present any evidence supporting their continued custody, according to a subsequent lawsuit. After her husband asked the judge what he was allowed to say in; Search Snippet: ...TRIBAL RIGHTS South Dakota Class Action Highlights Violations of the Indian Child Welfare Act Lorelei Laird Copyright © 2015 by the American Bar... 2015  
Geoffrey D. Strommer, Starla K. Roels, Caroline P. Mayhew Tribal Sovereign Authority and Self-regulation of Health Care Services: the Legal Framework and the Swinomish Tribe's Dental Health Program 21 Journal of Health Care Law and Policy 115 (2018) Across the United States, an important shift is taking place in the Indian health care arena. Over the past forty years, many American Indian Tribes have transitioned away from relying primarily on federal officials to provide a bare minimum in health care services to Indian people and have begun instead to develop and operate complex tribal health; Search Snippet: ...PHS reported in its 1957 Report, In 1892, Commissioner [of Indian Affairs Thomas J.] Morgan, having repeatedly exhorted Congress in the name of humanity to provide money for Indian hospitals at every agency and boarding school, described the lack of such facilities as a great... 2018  
Regina Gerhardt Tribal Sovereignty and Gaming: a Proposal to Amend the National Labor Relations Act 39 Cardozo Law Review 377 (October, 2017) C1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 378 I. Legal Background. 381 A. History of Tribal Sovereignty in the United States. 381 1. Origins of Tribal Sovereignty. 382 2. Tribal Sovereignty over Strictly Commercial Matters. 387 B. Federal Laws of General Applicability. 388 C. Impact of the Gaming Industry on Tribes and the Non-Tribal Labor Force. 390; Search Snippet: ...and responsibility to the Indian people for the education of Indian children Pevar supra note 31, at 35. See id... 2017  
Michael Doran TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY PREEMPTED 89 Brooklyn Law Review 53 (Fall, 2023) In 1832, the US Supreme Court held in Worcester v. Georgia that the State of Georgia had no authority to exercise criminal jurisdiction over a non-Indian for conduct within the lands of the Cherokee Nation. In passages repeated many times since, the Court said that the several Indian nations [are] distinct political communities, having territorial... 2023  
Dean B. Suagee Tribal Voices in Historic Preservation: Sacred Landscapes, Cross-cultural Bridges, and Common Ground 21 Vermont Law Review 145 (Fall, 1996) C1-3TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 147 I. Our Stories Matter. 149 A. Our Places in American History. 150 1. Owning Up to the Legacy of Cultural Genocide. 153 2. Celebrating Our Survival and Our Differences. 157 B. The Contemporary Need for Stewardship. 160 1. Our Stories About Nature. 162 2. Values in Conflict over the Use of Land. 163 a. Bighorn; Search Snippet: ...and massacres), the federal government attacked the core values of Indian tribal cultures on several fronts: traditional religious practices were outlawed; children were taken away to boarding schools; and tribal landholdings were confiscated and converted into individual... 1996  
Rebecca Tsosie Tribalism, Constitutionalism, and Cultural Pluralism: Where Do Indigenous Peoples Fit Within Civil Society? 5 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 357 (January, 2003) The effort of modern political theory to understand multiculturalism has engendered a variety of responses, depending upon the theoretical tradition (e.g., liberalism, communitarianism) and the nature of the group (e.g., immigrant groups, descendants of slaves, indigenous peoples). Contemporary political philosophers struggle with two primary; Search Snippet: ...efforts to manage differences. [FN46] The history of relations between Native people and the United States government is replete with examples of the former: the United States military campaigns against Indian nations, the forced relocation of Native groups from their traditional homelands, and the forcible assimilation of Native people through boarding school policies and Christianization. However, the United States has also... 2003  
Lori Bable TRIBALLY DEFINED CITIZENSHIP CRITERIA: COUNTERING WHITENESS AS PROPERTY INTERPRETATIONS OF "INDIAN" FOR RESTORING INHERENT SOVEREIGNTY 18 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 29 (Winter, 2021) This article implements the framework of whiteness of property to articulate the ways in which holdings of the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) have limited Tribal Nations' sovereignty because of the illegibility and correlative dispossession of inherent sovereignty itself. This article also highlights how these past SCOTUS... 2021  
Sharon O'Brien Tribes and Indians: with Whom Does the United States Maintain a Relationship? 66 Notre Dame Law Review 1461 (1991) Federal Indian itself law is a mythical creature because it is composed of badly written, vaguely phrased and ill-considered federal statutes; hundreds of self-serving Solicitor's Opinions and regulations; and state, federal, and Supreme Court decisions which bear little relationship to rational thought and contain a fictional view of American; Search Snippet: ...of seven (now fourteen) major crimes on reservations. Congress established Indian boarding schools designed to kill the Indian . . . and save the man. [FN17] The Bureau of Indian Affairs... 1991  
Carla D. Pratt Tribes and Tribulations: Beyond Sovereign Immunity and Toward Reparation and Reconciliation for the Estelusti 11 Washington and Lee Race and Ethnic Ancestry Law Journal 61 (Winter, 2005) This Article advocates a form of micro-reparations for a limited class of African Americans--the Estelusti (black Indians). The Article seeks reparations in the form of racial healing not only from the United States Government, but also from one particular participant in African American slavery--Native American Indian Tribes. The Article begins by; Search Snippet: Carlisle, Pennsylvania. David Wallace Adams, Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875-1928 51-53 (1995). Many of Pratt's... 2005  
Raymond Cross Tribes as Rich Nations 38 Public Land & Resources Law Review 117 (2017) I. Introduction. 119 A. The Life-Cycle of the Tribe. 123 1. Birth. 123 2. Childhood. 127 3. Adolescence. 128 4. Death. 133 5. Rebirth. 143 II. The Failed Effort to Emancipate the American Indian Peoples. 146 A. The Origin of Tribal Self-Determination. 147 1. Evaluating the Self-Determination Component. 148 2. Evaluating the Tribal Component. 149; Search Snippet: ...their tribesmen to be white Indians. [FN67] Third, allotment encouraged Indian parents to send their children to the newly-created federal Indian boarding schools. [FN68] An American-type education was deemed to be the most reliable means for assimilating Indian children into a non-Indian society. [FN69] It was the archetypal... 2017  
Raymond Cross Tribes as Rich Nations 79 Oregon Law Review 893 (Winter 2000) If you have understanding and heart, show only one. Both they will damn, if both you show together. Emancipating today's American Indian peoples requires a fundamental restructuring of the contemporary concept of tribal self-determination. Bound by their legal status as tribes, assigned to them by Supreme Court opinions now almost 200 years old,; Search Snippet: ...their tribesmen to be white Indians. [FN68] Third, allotment encouraged Indian parents to send their children to the newly-created federal Indian boarding schools. [FN69] An American-type education was deemed to be the most reliable means for assimilating Indian children into a non-Indian society. [FN70] It was the archetypal... 2000  
Christopher R. Green TRIBES, NATIONS, STATES: OUR THREE COMMERCE POWERS 127 Penn State Law Review 643 (Summer, 2023) The scope of federal power is sometimes seen as a long-running battle between two stories. Story One sees the commerce power as initially broad, mistakenly contracted in the late nineteenth century, then properly restored in 1937 as the national power to deal with national problems. Story Two sees 1937 as the mistake, and the commerce power as... 2023  
Judith Resnik Tribes, Wars, and the Federal Courts: Applying the Myths and the Methods of Marbury V. Madison to Tribal Courts' Criminal Jurisdiction 36 Arizona State Law Journal 77 (Spring, 2004) C1-3Table of Contents I. Constitutionalism as Reasoning About Constraint. 78 II. Federal Indian Law and the Problems of Authority. 93 III. Difference, Assimilation, and Sovereignty. 96 IV. Jurisdiction by Distrust of the Other Court System. 102 V. Jurisdiction by Political Affiliation. 111 VI. Sources of Sovereignty, Double Jeopardy, and; Search Snippet: ...or discovery. Id . at 85-86. See, e.g. , the Indian Child Welfare Act, Pub. L. No. 95-608, 92 Stat. 3069... 2004  
Kace Rodwell , Michael Colbert Smith , Stephanie Hudson TRIBUTES TO STEVE HAGER 46 American Indian Law Review 337 (2022) I first met Steve Hager at Sovereignty Symposium when he was presenting on the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) for the Juvenile Law panel. I was just a 1L law student then, inspired by his passion for advocating for Tribal families and enforcing laws enacted to protect them. I knew then that I wanted to work alongside Steve and would later get that... 2022  
David R. Katner TRUMP'S POLICY OF PUTTING KIDS IN CAGES: SIX DEAD, THOUSANDS SEPARATED FROM PARENTS, MAKING AMERICA GREAT AGAIN? 28 Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law 87 (Spring, 2021) Introduction. 88 I. Conditions of Children's Detentions at the U.S. Border. 96 II. The Traumatic Impact of Separating Children from Parents and Locking them Up. 105 A. The Complications and Manipulations of Conditions of Poverty. 110 B. Need for Therapeutic Interventions for Children and Adolescents Separated from Parents by the Trump... 2021  
Lauren E. Schneider TRUST BETRAYED: THE RELUCTANCE TO RECOGNIZE JUDICIALLY ENFORCEABLE TRUST OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE INDIAN HEALTH CARE IMPROVEMENT ACT (IHCIA) 52 Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 1099 (Summer, 2021) The federal trust doctrine developed out of the legal relationship between European sovereigns--and later, the United States government--and American Indian tribes. By signing treaties with Indian tribes, the settler governments entered into an ongoing relationship with sovereign tribal governments. The United States government has a duty to... 2021  
Onalee R. Chappeau Trusting the Tribe: Understanding the Tensions of the Indian Child Welfare Act 64 Saint Louis University Law Journal 241 (Winter, 2020) . Remember your birth, how your mother struggled to give you form and breath. You are evidence of her life, and her mother's, and hers. Remember your father. He is your life, also . Remember you are all people and all people are you. Remember you are this universe and this universe is you. Remember all is in motion, is growing, is you. Remember; Search Snippet: ...2020 Note TRUSTING THE TRIBE: UNDERSTANDING THE TENSIONS OF THE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Onalee R. Chappeau [FNa1] Copyright © 2020 by Saint... 2020 Child Welfare
Heather Parker Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: a Needed Force in Alaska? 34 Alaska Law Review 27 (June, 2017) Introduction. 28 Background and Definitions. 31 Truth Commissions. 31 Reconciliation. 34 Context for Alaska. 35 History of Occupation. 36 Forced Assimilation Policies. 37 Government-Endorsed Discrimination. 38 Aftermath of Assimilation and Discrimination Policies in Alaska. 40 Comparison and Overview of Select International Commissions. 42 South; Search Snippet: ...the village, it was eerily quiet that winter. [FN61] At boarding school, all topics were taught in English and there was a constant message that Native cultures, heritage, and languages were of no use, including singing... 2017  
Kimbirlee E. Sommer Miller TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION: RESTORATIVE JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND CULTURAL VIOLENCE 24 Oregon Review of International Law 195 (2023) I. Residential Schools: Compulsory Assimilation for Indigenous Children. 198 A. History. 198 B. Forced Assimilation. 200 C. Abuse. 201 D. Mass Graves. 202 II. Cultural Genocide: The Sociological Impact of Cultural Erasure. 203 A. Tribal Languages. 205 B. Poverty. 206 C. Substance Abuse and PTSD. 207 D. Generational Trauma. 208 III. Canada's Truth... 2023  
Sarah Martinez Turning Back the Clock: the Loss of Tribal Jurisdiction over Involuntary Juvenile Dependency Proceedings 10 U.C. Davis Journal of Juvenile Law & Policy 541 (Summer, 2006) There is no resource that is more vital to the continued existence and integrity of Indian tribes than their children. This language from the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) captures the U.S. Congress' intent in preventing the mass removal of Indian children from their reservations, families and culture. Native American activism for; Search Snippet: ...Indian tribes than their children. [FN1] This language from the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) captures the U.S. Congress' intent in preventing the mass removal of Indian children from their reservations, families and culture. Native American activism for... 2006  
Laura Briggs TWENTIETH CENTURY BLACK AND NATIVE ACTIVISM AGAINST THE CHILD TAKING SYSTEM: LESSONS FOR THE PRESENT 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 611 (July, 2021) This Article argues that the historical record supports activism that takes the abolition of the child welfare system as its starting point, rather than its reform. It explores the birth of the modern child welfare system in the 1950s as part of the white supremacist effort to punish Black communities that sought desegregation of schools and other... 2021  
Justin E. Brooks TWO COUNTRIES IN CRISIS: MAN CAMPS AND THE NIGHTMARE OF NON-INDIGENOUS CRIMINAL JURISDICTION IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 56 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 533 (March, 2023) Thousands of Indigenous women and girls have gone missing or have been found murdered across the United States and Canada; these disappearances and killings are so frequent and widespread that they have become known as the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women Crisis (MMIW Crisis). Indigenous communities in both countries often lack the... 2023  
Robert B. Porter - Odawi Two Kinds of Indians, Two Kinds of Indian Nation Sovereignty: a Surreply to Professor Lavelle 11 Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy 629 (Spring, 2002) If you can free your mind, the body will follow. - Morpheus I. INTRODUCTION John LaVelle, my colleague at the University of South Dakota, graciously took up the task of commenting on my article arguing against the increasing practice of American Indians to self-identify as, and to exercise the political rights of, American citizens. Professor; Search Snippet: ...fails to acknowledge that the fundamental purpose of making the Indians Christians, like sending them to the boarding schools, was to completely destroy traditional Indian culture and identity. That is why today it is not... 2002  
Scott Trowbridge Understanding the 2016 Indian Child Welfare Act Regulations 36 Child Law Practice Prac. 6 (January, 2017) The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was passed in 1978 in response to widespread removals of Native American children. It came on the heels of official policies aimed at eroding tribal sovereignty and culture. ICWA is unique in that it seeks to protect children, their families, and the right of tribal governments to exercise parens patriae; Search Snippet: ...Practice January, 2017 Law and Policy Update UNDERSTANDING THE 2016 INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT REGULATIONS Scott Trowbridge [FNa1] Copyright © 2017 by American Bar Association; Scott Trowbridge T he Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) [FN1] was passed in 1978 in response... 2017 Child Welfare
Annette Ruth Appell Uneasy Tensions Between Children's Rights and Civil Rights 5 Nevada Law Journal 141 (Fall 2004) This essay begins an exploration of the opposition between, and intersection of, children's rights and civil rights. Children's rights, a phrase I will define and explore more fully below, are sometimes placed under the umbrella of the civil rights movement. Children's rights to equal protection in education, protections against arbitrary state; Search Snippet: ...various faces of children's rights in the context of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA). [FN2] This Symposium's occasion and location in... 2004  
Neoshia R. Roemer UN-ERASING AMERICAN INDIANS AND THE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT FROM FAMILY LAW 56 Family Law Quarterly 31 (2022-2023) In 1978, Congress enacted the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as a remedial measure to correct centuries-old policies that removed Indian children from their families and tribal communities at alarming rates. Since 1978, courts presiding over child custody matters around the country have applied ICWA. Over the last few decades, state legislatures,... 2023 Child Welfare
Monika Batra Kashyap Unsettling Immigration Laws: Settler Colonialism and the U.s. Immigration Legal System 46 Fordham Urban Law Journal 548 (June, 2019) This Article flows from the premise that the United States is a present-day settler colonial society whose laws and policies function to support an ongoing structure of invasion called settler colonialism, which operates through the processes of Indigenous elimination and the subordination of racialized outsiders. At a time when U.S. immigration; Search Snippet: ...of Indigenous children from their families to government-funded residential boarding schools provides a quintessential example of a settler colonial cultural... 2019  
Addie C. Rolnick Untangling the Web: Juvenile Justice in Indian Country 19 NYU Journal of Legislation and Public Policy 49 (2016) The juvenile justice system in Indian country is broken. Native youth are vulnerable and traumatized. They become involved in the system at high rates, and they are more likely than other youth to be incarcerated and less likely to receive necessary health, mental-health, and education services. Congressional leaders and the Obama administration; Search Snippet: ...Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act 133 4. Extend the Indian Child Welfare Act 134 B. Improving Outcomes for Native Youth in... 2016  
Lauren van Schilfgaarde , Brett Lee Shelton USING PEACEMAKING CIRCLES TO INDIGENIZE TRIBAL CHILD WELFARE 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 681 (July, 2021) Historical child welfare policies explicitly aimed to exterminate Indigenous culture and disrupt tribal cohesion. The remnants of these policies form the foundation for the contemporary child welfare system. These policies view the child as an isolated and interchangeable asset, over which parents enjoy property-like rights, and in which the child... 2021 Child Welfare
Kirke Kickingbird Vanishing American-vanishing Justice: Indian Policies on the Eve of the 21st Century 14 Thomas M. Cooley Law Review 437 (Michaelmas Term, 1997) Well, I began teaching law school in 1988. I taught federal Indian law under tribal governments for years through a special program that I had developed with my private, non-profit organization named the Institute for the Development of Indian Law. While teaching, I have found that the material I used to be able to teach tribal governments' leaders; Search Snippet: ...there was considerable, the United States sold to white homesteaders. Indian children were shipped away to boarding schools and separated from the adverse influence of their parents... 1997  
Summer Blaze Aubrey Violence Against the Earth Begets Violence Against Women: an Analysis of the Correlation Between Large Extraction Projects and Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, and the Laws That Permit the Phenomenon Through an International Human Rights Lens 10 Arizona Journal of Environmental Law & Policy 34 (Fall, 2019) This note examines the prevalence of sex trafficking of Native women and children, and the correlation those rates have with large extraction projects, such as the Bakken Oil Fields in North Dakota, and the camps (man camps) that employees live in. In order to fully flesh out the phenomenon accurately, this note walks through pertinent history; Search Snippet: frontier. Hunting never ended; [FN42] it only evolved. The Indian Boarding School Policy began in 1869 as a result of the Indian Civilization Act Fund, [FN43] the Peace Policy of 1869, [FN44... 2019  
Annette Ruth Appell Virtual Mothers and the Meaning of Parenthood 34 University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 683 (Summer 2001) Professor Appell supports the use of the traditional parental rights doctrine, which accords biological parents, particularly mothers, parental status alienable only voluntarily or upon proof of unfitness. She defends the doctrine against the criticisms that it is regressive and does not protect the interests of children or de facto parents. She; Search Snippet: used to define families. The government's coercive removal of Native American children from their families and tribes to foster homes and government boarding schools reveals the personal and cultural destructiveness of discretionary decisionmaking... 2001  
Kristen Carpenter , Andrew Cowell , Alexis Palmer VISIONS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES 2022-2032 34 Colorado Environmental Law Journal 1 (Spring, 2023) The United Nations General Assembly recently proclaimed the International Decade of Indigenous Languages (IDIL) from 2022-2032 to to draw attention to the critical loss of indigenous languages and the urgent need to preserve, revitalize and promote indigenous languages and to take urgent steps at the national and international levels. The... 2023  
Stan Watts Voluntary Adoptions under the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Balancing the Interests of Children, Families, and Tribes 63 Southern California Law Review 213 (November, 1989) For nearly five hundred years the Native American Indian tribes of North America have struggled to maintain their unique cultural lifestyles. They have been dispossessed by land fraud, decimated by foreign diseases, subjugated by superior military technology, oppressed by a corrupt bureaucracy, and manipulated by misguided reformers, yet the tribes; Search Snippet: ...California Law Review November, 1989 Note VOLUNTARY ADOPTIONS UNDER THE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT OF 1978: BALANCING THE INTERESTS OF CHILDREN, FAMILIES... 1989 Child Welfare
James Thomas Tucker , Rodolfo Espino , Tara Brite, Shannon Conley, Ben Horowitz, Zak Walter, Shon Zelman Voting Rights in Arizona: 1982-2006 17 Southern California Review of Law & Social Justice 283 (Spring 2008) Before the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA), Arizonans of Hispanic, American Indian, African-American and Asian heritage were the victims of discrimination in virtually every area of their social and political lives. The town of Winslow adopted a policy segregating public swimming pools that allowed only Anglos to use the pool on days; Search Snippet: ...English-only requirements. [FN319] That would be true if American Indian children were being taught in tribal schools; however, 80% of tribal children are in public and charter schools. [FN320] American Indians remember well the era from the 1800s to the 1960s when American Indian children were placed in government-run boarding schools and punished for speaking their native language. [FN321] Proposition 203 revitalizes that much- 2008  
Laughlin McDonald , Janine Pease , Richard Guest Voting Rights in South Dakota: 1982-2006 17 Southern California Review of Law & Social Justice 195 (Fall 2007) The problems Indians continue to experience in South Dakota in securing an equal right to vote strongly supported the extension of the special provisions of the Voting Rights Act that were scheduled to expire in 2007. They also demonstrated the ultimate wisdom of Congress in making permanent and nationwide the basic guarantee of equal political; Search Snippet: ...she went to high school in Todd County. [FN239] The Indian students lived in a segregated dorm at the Rosebud boarding school. [FN240] They were bussed to the high school, then... 2007  
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