AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Term in Title or Summary
Alan Z. Rozenshtein DIGITAL DISEASE SURVEILLANCE 70 American University Law Review 1511 (May, 2021) The fight against future pandemics will likely involve digital disease surveillance: the use of digital technology to enhance traditional public-health techniques like contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine. But legal scholarship on digital disease surveillance is still in its infancy. This Article fills that gap. Part I explains the role that... 2021  
Emma Curran Donnelly Hulse DISABLING LANGUAGE: THE OVERREPRESENTATION OF EMERGENT BILINGUAL STUDENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION IN NEW YORK AND ARIZONA 48 Fordham Urban Law Journal 381 (February, 2021) Introduction. 382 I. Disproportionality and Its Consequences. 387 II. Restrictive Language Policies and Educator Discretion Drive Disproportionality. 393 A. Contextualizing the Classroom: The Rise and Fall of Federal Support for Bilingual Education. 394 B. Arizona: The Nativist Campaign for English-Only Education. 397 C. New York: The Collateral... 2021  
Anthony O'Rourke , Rick Su , Guyora Binder DISBANDING POLICE AGENCIES 121 Columbia Law Review 1327 (May, 2021) Since the killing of George Floyd, a national consensus has emerged that reforms are needed to prevent discriminatory and violent policing. Calls to defund and abolish the police have provoked pushback, but several cities are considering disbanding or reducing their police forces. This Essay assesses disbanding as a reform strategy from a... 2021  
Stephanie Bornstein DISCLOSING DISCRIMINATION 101 Boston University Law Review 287 (January, 2021) In the United States, enforcement of laws prohibiting workplace discrimination rests almost entirely on the shoulders of employee victims, who must first file charges with a government agency and then pursue litigation themselves. While the law forbids retaliation against employees who complain, this does little to prevent it, in part because... 2021  
Alison Siegler, William Admussen DISCOVERING RACIAL DISCRIMINATION BY THE POLICE 115 Northwestern University Law Review 987 (2021) For decades, it was virtually impossible for a criminal defendant to challenge racial discrimination by the police or prosecutors. This was because in United States v. Armstrong, 517 U.S. 456 (1996), the Supreme Court set an insurmountable standard for obtaining discovery in support of a selective prosecution claim. Equating the roles of... 2021  
Stephanie Holmes Didwania DISCRETION AND DISPARITY IN FEDERAL DETENTION 115 Northwestern University Law Review 1261 (2021) The uniquely American phenomenon of mass incarceration plagues the pretrial space. People awaiting trial make up roughly 20% of those held in criminal custody in the United States. Largely overlooked by bail-reform advocates, pretrial detention in the federal criminal system presents a puzzle. The federal system detains defendants at a... 2021  
Peter Blanck , Fitore Hyseni , Fatma Altunkol Wise DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION IN THE AMERICAN LEGAL PROFESSION: DISCRIMINATION AND BIAS REPORTED BY LAWYERS WITH DISABILITIES AND LAWYERS WHO IDENTIFY AS LGBTQ+ 47 American Journal of Law & Medicine 9 (2021) This article is part of an ongoing body of investigation examining the experiences of lawyers with diverse and multiple minority identities, with particular focus on lawyers with disabilities; lawyers who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+ as an overarching term); and lawyers with minority identities associated... 2021  
Anthony Leon DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION IN THE LEGAL PROFESSION: A MISSED OPPORTUNITY FOR THE ANTITRUST PRACTICE 31 Competition: The Journal of the Antitrust and Unfair Competition Law Section of the California Lawyers Association 91 (Spring, 2021) Discussions about the importance of diversity in the workplace have flourished over the past few decades. In an inherently and historically diverse American society, various professions remain overwhelmingly held by white men. The legal profession has not been spared from this critique. On average, 83.5% of the people working in legal occupations... 2021  
David Tipson , Rene Kathawala , Nyah Berg , Lauren Webb EFFECTIVE SCHOOL-INTEGRATION MOBILIZATION: THE CASE FOR NON-LITIGATION ADVOCACY AND IMPACT 48 Fordham Urban Law Journal 475 (February, 2021) Introduction. 475 I. Historical Background. 477 A. School Desegregation in the United States. 477 B. School Integration in New York City. 487 C. Status Quo in 2011. 489 II. Framing the Role for Legal Advocacy. 493 III. Implementation. 500 A. Challenging Legal and Regulatory Structures Inhibiting NYCDOE Action. 500 B. Creating a Precedential... 2021  
Lee Drutman ELECTIONS, POLITICAL PARTIES, AND MULTIRACIAL, MULTIETHNIC DEMOCRACY: HOW THE UNITED STATES GETS IT WRONG 96 New York University Law Review 985 (October, 2021) How can self-governance work in a diverse society? Is it possible to have a successful multiracial, multiethnic democracy in which all groups are represented fairly? What kinds of electoral and governing institutions work best in a pluralistic society? In the United States today, these are not just theoretical concerns but fundamental inquiries at... 2021  
Perry A. Zirkel ENGLISH LEARNERS IN K-12 SCHOOLS AT THE PERILOUS INTERSECTION WITH DISABILITY LAWS: THE NEED FOR GUARDIAS BILINGÜES 30 Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 59 (Winter, 2021) Introduction. 60 I.Overview of the Intersecting Legal Frameworks. 61 A. EL Statutory Framework. 61 B. Disability Statutory Framework. 63 II.Legal Literature at the EL-Disability Intersection. 65 III.Legal Decisions and Related Authority at the EL-Disability Intersection. 67 A. Identification. 68 1. Child Find. 68 2. Evaluation. 69 3. Eligibility.... 2021  
Paul Heaton ENHANCED PUBLIC DEFENSE IMPROVES PRETRIAL OUTCOMES AND REDUCES RACIAL DISPARITIES 96 Indiana Law Journal 701 (Spring, 2021) Numerous jurisdictions are working to reform pretrial processes to reduce or eliminate money bail and decrease pretrial detention. Although reforms such as the abandonment of bail schedules or adoption of actuarial risk assessment tools have been widely enacted, the role of defense counsel in the pretrial process has received less attention. This... 2021  
Nancy Leong ENJOYED BY WHITE CITIZENS 109 Georgetown Law Journal 1421 (June, 2021) Whiteness is invisible in American law. The U.S. Constitution never mentions white people. Indeed, the entirety of constitutional and statutory law, at both the federal and state level, includes only two antidiscrimination statutes that refer explicitly to white people. These Reconstructionera statutes--42 U.S.C. § 1981 and § 1982--declare that all... 2021  
Kevin Woodson ENTRENCHED RACIAL HIERARCHY: EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY FROM THE CRADLE TO THE LSAT 47 Mitchell Hamline Law Review 224 (November, 2021) For my contribution to this special issue of the Minnesota Law Review, I will attempt to situate the problem of black underrepresentation at America's law schools within the broader context of racial hierarchy in American society. The former has generated an extensive body of legal scholarship and commentary, centering primarily on the racial... 2021  
Kevin Woodson ENTRENCHED RACIAL HIERARCHY: EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY FROM THE CRADLE TO THE LSAT 105 Minnesota Law Review Headnotes 481 (Spring, 2021) For my contribution to this special issue of the Minnesota Law Review, I will attempt to situate the problem of black underrepresentation at Americas law schools within the broader context of racial hierarchy in American society. The former has generated an extensive body of legal scholarship and commentary, centering primarily on the racial impact... 2021  
Julie E. Steiner ERASING EVIDENCE OF HISTORIC INJUSTICE: THE CANNABIS CRIMINAL RECORDS EXPUNGEMENT PARADOX 101 Boston University Law Review 1203 (May, 2021) Cannabis prohibition and its subsequent enforcement have yielded an epic societal tragedy. The decision to criminalize cannabis was a paradigm-shifting moment in legal history because it converted lawful medicinal or intoxicant-seeking conduct into criminal activity, inviting government intrusion into matters previously self-controlled. Scholars... 2021  
Jona Goldschmidt, Christopher Donner EXCLUSION OF RACE OF SUSPECT FROM CLERY ACT CAMPUS "CRIME ALERTS": RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF CLERY ACT REPORTERS 28 George Mason Law Review 967 (Spring, 2021) The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act of 1990 (Clery Act) requires campus safety authorities at schools receiving federal funds to collect and annually produce statistics regarding crimes occurring on their campuses. The rule promulgated by the US Department of Education (DOE) under the Clery Act... 2021  
Laura Smalarz , Yueran Yang , Gary L. Wells EYEWITNESSES' FREE-REPORT VERBAL CONFIDENCE STATEMENTS ARE DIAGNOSTIC OF ACCURACY 45 Law and Human Behavior 138 (April, 2021) Objectives: We assessed recent policy recommendations to collect eyewitnesses' confidence statements in witnesses' own words as opposed to numerically. We conducted an experiment to test whether eyewitnesses' free-report verbal confidence statements are as diagnostic of eyewitness accuracy as their numeric confidence statements and whether the... 2021  
Andrew Guthrie Ferguson FACIAL RECOGNITION AND THE FOURTH AMENDMENT 105 Minnesota Law Review 1105 (February, 2021) Introduction. 1106 I. Facial Recognition Technology. 1109 A. The Technology. 1110 B. Police Use of Facial Recognition Technology. 1115 1. Face Surveillance. 1116 2. Face Identification. 1119 3. Face Tracking. 1122 4. Non-Law Enforcement Purposes. 1124 II. The Fourth Amendment and the Privacy Problem of Facial Recognition. 1126 A. Pre-Digital Face... 2021  
Ernesto Sagás , Ediberto Román FEAR, LOATHING, AND THE HEMISPHERIC CONSEQUENCES OF XENOPHOBIC HATE 29 University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review 1 (Fall, 2021) When you have fifteen thousand people marching up . how do you stop these people? You shoot them [crowd member shouts] [chuckling, Trump responds:] [O]nly in the Panhandle can you get away with that thing. President Donald Trump Thousands of criminal aliens. They're pouring into our country. President Donald Trump They're not people, these... 2021  
Jessica A. Shoemaker FEE SIMPLE FAILURES: RURAL LANDSCAPES AND RACE 119 Michigan Law Review 1695 (June, 2021) Property law's roots are rural. America pursued an early agrarian vision that understood real property rights as instrumental to achieving a country of free, engaged citizens who cared for their communities and stewarded their physical place in it. But we have drifted far from this ideal. Today, American agriculture is industrialized, and rural... 2021  
Carlos Berdejó FINANCING MINORITY ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2021 Wisconsin Law Review 41 (2021) Racial disparities pervade America's socioeconomic fabric: minorities lag in educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth. Minorities are also underrepresented in the entrepreneurial space. For example, although minorities account for thirty-eight percent of the population, they own just nineteen percent of businesses. Despite numerous... 2021  
Winnie F. Taylor FINTECH AND RACE-BASED INEQUALITY IN THE HOME MORTGAGE AND AUTO FINANCING MARKETS 33 Loyola Consumer Law Review 366 (2021) The racial gap in wealth in the United States is astonishing. A 2019 survey found that the typical White family has eight times the wealth of the typical African American family and five times the wealth of the typical Hispanic family. Unfortunately, discrimination in the home mortgage market and the lending industry has contributed greatly to the... 2021 Yes
Pamela Foohey , Nathalie Martin FINTECH'S ROLE IN EXACERBATING OR REDUCING THE WEALTH GAP 2021 University of Illinois Law Review 459 (2021) Research shows that Black, Latinx, and other minorities pay more for credit and banking services, and that wealth accumulation differs starkly between their households and white households. The link between debt inequality and the wealth gap, however, remains less thoroughly explored, particularly in light of new credit products and debt-like... 2021 Yes
Ernesto Hernández-López FOOD OPPRESSION: LESSONS FROM SKIMMED FOR A PANDEMIC 57 California Western Law Review 243 (Spring, 2021) In her book, Skimmed: Breastfeeding, Race, and Injustice, Andrea Freeman powerfully illustrates how differences in circumstances shape the decisions Black and White mothers make to feed their infants. Skimmed explores an important topic, which surely impacts each person as newborns--breastfeeding. Specifically, the book presents how White privilege... 2021  
Co-Dean David Lopez FOREWORD 72 Rutgers University Law Review 1265 (Winter, 2021) That everything you see will soon alter and cease to exist. Think of how many changes you have already seen. The world is nothing but change. -Marcus Aurelius The general laws of migration hold that the greater the obstacles and the farther the distance traveled, the more ambitious the migrants. -Isabel Wilkerson History will have to record... 2021  
Paul Butler FOREWORD TO THE REPUBLICATION OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND THE CRIMINAL LAW 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1443 (Special Issue 2021) Twenty-four years later, je ne regrette rien. I do not mean that I got everything exactly right, but I miss my youthful exuberance. I wonder, in the words of Birdman, What happened to that boy? Here is one of the passages that, introspect, seems most poignant: I argue that but for the fruits of slavery and entrenched racism, African Americans... 2021  
Eric K. Yamamoto , Susan K. Serrano FOREWORD TO THE REPUBLICATION OF RACIALIZING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1383 (Special Issue 2021) Systemic racism! The burgeoning 2020 Black Lives Matter protests vaulted this formerly whispered phrase into mainstream public consciousness. Through news headlines, social media, educational classes, opinion essays, word of mouth, and more, America grappled with the enormity of racism as a form of oppression of people and communities, as... 2021  
T. Alexander Aleinikoff FOREWORD TO THE REPUBLICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION IN CONTEXT: THE CONTINUING SIGNIFICANCE OF RACISM 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1315 (Special Issue 2021) It is disturbing--to say the least--that an article written nearly three decades ago based on an assertion of the continuing existence of racism in the United States can be seen as meriting republication, not for its historical interest but because of its current relevance. The article began with descriptions of the brutal murder of Emmet Till in... 2021  
Jennifer Hickey FROM APPLES TO ORCHARDS: A VULNERABILITY APPROACH TO POLICE MISCONDUCT 26 Texas Journal on Civil Liberties & Civil Rights 1 (Fall, 2020/Spring, 2021) Introduction. 2 I. The Evolution of Section 1983. 4 A. Period of Expansion and Refinement. 7 B. The Court Pulls Back. 8 II. The Relentless Individualism of Section 1983. 11 A. Myth of the Bad Apple. 12 B. The Punitive Cycle. 15 1. Punishing Individual Officers. 15 i. Criminal Justice Response. 16 ii. Civil Justice Response. 17 2. Punishing... 2021  
Christopher Cruz FROM DIGITAL DISPARITY TO EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE: CLOSING THE OPPORTUNITY AND ACHIEVEMENT GAPS FOR LOWINCOME, BLACK, AND LATINX STUDENTS 24 Harvard Latinx Law Review 33 (Spring, 2021) The health and economic crises brought about by COVID-19 in 2020 sent society into a downward spiral with the most marginalized groups in the United States feeling disproportionate impacts. For low-income, Black, and Latinx students in particular, school shutdowns and the transition to online learning exacerbated pre-existing inequities in access... 2021 Yes
Richard Delgado GROUNDHOG LAW 21 Journal of Law in Society 1 (Winter, 2021) 1 Zoom! In which Rodrigo Returns in an Online Persona. 2 I. Rodrigo's Hypothesis: Speech and Action in the Age of Coronavirus. 4 II. In Which Rodrigo Ponders Whether Law is An Academic Discipline Even if it Generates Little Knowledge and Aims at None. 6 A. In Which Rodrigo Explains Law's Recursive Quality, a Metaphor for Our Locked-in... 2021  
  HABEAS RELIEF FOR STATE PRISONERS 50 Georgetown Law Journal Annual Review of Criminal Procedure 1074 (2021) Under 28 U.S.C. § 2254, a person in custody pursuant to a state court judgment may challenge the conviction and sentence in federal court by applying for a writ of habeas corpus. Habeas corpus petitions filed by state prisoners are subject to the Rules Governing Section 2254 Cases in the United States District Courts (§ 2254 Rules). Section 2254... 2021  
Jennifer M. Smith , Elliot O. Jackson HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES: A MODEL FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION 14 Florida A & M University Law Review 103 (Winter, 2021) The whole world opened to me when I learned to read. ~ Mary McLeod Bethune Hungry for freedom and knowledge, enslaved Blacks engaged in a massive general strike against slavery by transferring their labor from the Confederate planter to the Northern invader, and this decided the Civil War. In 1865, the North conquered the South, and slavery... 2021  
Benjamin Justice HOBBLING: THE EFFECTS OF PROACTIVE POLICING AND MASS IMPRISONMENT ON CHILDREN'S EDUCATION 17 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 31 (2021) education, criminal justice, school, policing, incarceration, pipeline Researchers have written a good deal in the last two decades about the relationship between public education and criminal justice as a pipeline by which public school practices correlate with or cause increased lifetime risk for incarceration for Black and Latinx youth. This... 2021 Yes
Rachel D. Godsil, Sarah E. Waldeck HOME EQUITY: RETHINKING RACE AND FEDERAL HOUSING POLICY 98 Denver Law Review 523 (Spring, 2021) Neighborhoods shape every element of our lives. Where we live determines economic opportunities; our exposure to police and pollution; and the availability of positive amenities for a healthy life. Home inequity--both financial and racial--is not accidental. Federal government programs have armed white people with agency to construct white spaces... 2021  
Jennifer C. Nash HOME IS WHERE THE BIRTH IS: RACE, RISK, AND LABOR DURING COVID-19 32 Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 103 (2021) On April 28, 2020, Dr. W. Spencer McClelland--an obstetrician at New York City's Lenox Hill Hospital--published an editorial in The New York Times that announced, If you planned on delivering in a New York City hospital, don't change your plans. McClelland's plea was a response to an outpouring of news reports focused on pregnant people... 2021  
Dorothy Roberts HOW I BECAME A FAMILY POLICING ABOLITIONIST 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 455 (July, 2021) My book Shattered Bonds: The Color of Child Welfare, published in 2001, documented the racial realities of family policing in America. At the time, more than a half million children had been taken from their parents by child protection services (CPS) and were in foster care. Black families were the most likely of any group to be torn apart. Black... 2021  
Karla M. McKanders IMMIGRATION AND RACIAL JUSTICE: ENFORCING THE BORDERS OF BLACKNESS 37 Georgia State University Law Review 1139 (Summer, 2021) Black immigrants are invisible at the intersection of their race and immigration status. Until recently, conversations on border security, unlawful immigration, and national security obscured racially motivated laws seeking to halt the blackening and browning of America. This Article engages with the impact of immigration enforcement at the... 2021  
Kevin R. Johnson IMMIGRATION LAW LESSONS FROM DEPORTED AMERICANS: LIFE AFTER DEPORTATION TO MEXICO 50 Southwestern Law Review 305 (2021) The last few years saw deeply troubling developments in U.S. immigration law and enforcement. The Obama administration annually removed hundreds of thousands of noncitizens from the United States, which earned the President the unflattering nickname of Deporter in Chief. After making immigration enforcement the cornerstone of his 2016... 2021  
Itay Ravid INCONSPICUOUS VICTIMS 25 Lewis & Clark Law Review 529 (2021) Recent debates on racial inequalities in the criminal justice system focus on offenders while neglecting the other side of the criminal equation--victims of crime. Such scholarly oversight is surprising given the similarly deep racial disparities in the treatment of victims, manifested in different stages of the criminal justice system. Delving... 2021  
Melissa R. Nadel , George Pesta , Thomas Blomberg , William D. Bales INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNITY CONTEXT IN DECISIONS TO DIVERT OR ARREST 55 Law and Society Review 320 (June, 2021) Diversion programs are increasingly being implemented as an alternative to more severe sanctions, especially within juvenile justice. The civil citation program in Florida is unique in that it diverts juveniles away from the justice system at the earliest decision point of arrest. However, despite its growing use in a number of states, there is... 2021  
Susan Ayres INSIDE THE MASTER'S GATES: RESOURCES AND TOOLS TO DISMANTLE RACISM AND SEXISM IN HIGHER EDUCATION 21 Journal of Law in Society 20 (Winter, 2021) INTRODUCTION. 21 I. DISMANTLING THE MASTER'S HOUSE: RESOURCES. 28 II. SUBSTANCE OF FIRE AND THE STORYTELLING MOVEMENT. 31 A. The Backstory. 31 B. Overview of Substance of Fire. 33 C. The Case for Storytelling. 35 III. SUBSTANCE OF FIRE: NARRATIVES AND COUNTER-STORYTELLING. 37 A. Lack of Mentors, Microaggressions. 38 B. Performing Gender, Safe... 2021  
Anirudh Krishna INTERNET.GOV: TECH COMPANIES AS GOVERNMENT AGENTS AND THE FUTURE OF THE FIGHT AGAINST CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE 109 California Law Review 1581 (August, 2021) The online proliferation of child sexual abuse material (CSAM), commonly referred to as child pornography, is a problem of massive scale. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), a private nonprofit specially authorized by Congress to serve as the nation's clearinghouse for reports of CSAM imagery, works with law enforcement... 2021  
Angela S. Boettcher, Quentin H. Morse, Nora Rainey Olson Cooke, Erin McLaughlin, Caroline Young, Charissa Wood, Sasha Strong, Natasha Viteri, Taylor Schad INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE: A RETROSPECTIVE ON RACE IN AMERICA 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1259 (Special Issue 2021) On May 25th, 2020, George Floyd was arrested by four Minneapolis Police Officers for attempting to pass a counterfeit twenty-dollar bill. To subdue a nonviolent Mr. Floyd, Officer Derek Chauvin knelt on Mr. Floyd's neck. Despite Mr. Floyd repeatedly gasping I can't breathe and eventually losing consciousness, Officer Chauvin held him pinned for... 2021  
Craig Cowie IS THE CFPB STILL ON THE BEAT? THE CFPB'S (NON)RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 82 Montana Law Review 41 (Winter, 2021) I. Introduction. 42 II. The Economic Impact of the Pandemic to Date. 44 III. The CFPB's Enforcement Response to the Pandemic. 52 A. The CFPB Took No Public Enforcement Action Under Director Kraninger Specifically Related to the Pandemic. 57 B. Instead, CFPB Brought Smaller Enforcement Actions. 62 1. Methodology. 64 2. The CFPB Initially Filed Few... 2021  
Tanya Katerí Hernández , © 2020 IS THERE A "MULATTO ESCAPE HATCH" OUT OF RACISM?: A REFLECTION ON MULTIRACIAL EXCEPTIONALISM DURING A TIME OF #BLACKLIVESMATTER 34 Journal of Civil Rights & Economic Development 65 (Spring, 2021) A mulatto escape hatch is an escape from the disabilities of blackness for some colored people. To have a symposium organized to review the ideas in my book, Multiracials and Civil Rights: Mixed-Race Stories of Discrimination, is an honor, and the JCRED editors, along with their dynamic Faculty Advisors Elaine Chiu and Rosa Castello, have my... 2021  
David A. Grenardo IT'S WORTH A SHOT: CAN SPORTS COMBAT RACISM IN THE UNITED STATES? 12 Harvard Journal of Sports & Entertainment Law 237 (Spring, 2021) Racism has stained this country throughout its history, and racism persists today in the United States, including in sports. Sports represent a reflection of society and its ills, but they can also provide a powerful means to combat racism. This article examines the state of racism in society and sports both historically and today. It also provides... 2021  
Eisha Jain JAILHOUSE IMMIGRATION SCREENING 70 Duke Law Journal 1703 (May, 2021) Within the past decade, U.S. interior immigration enforcement has shifted away from the street and into the jailhouse. The rationale behind jailhouse screening is to target enforcement efforts on those who fall within federal removal priorities. This Article shows how a program undertaken with the stated aim of targeting immigration enforcement has... 2021  
William S. Laufer , Robert C. Hughes JUSTICE UNDONE 58 American Criminal Law Review 155 (Winter, 2021) There is far more justice that is not served than served in our criminal justice system. Well more than half of all offending and victimization fails to make its way into the criminal justice system. An additional share of wrongdoing from initial police contact to the end of the criminal process is diverted or exits. A host of additional personal,... 2021  
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