AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Terms
Carlos Berdejó FINANCING MINORITY ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2021 Wisconsin Law Review 41 (2021) Racial disparities pervade America's socioeconomic fabric: minorities lag in educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth. Minorities are also underrepresented in the entrepreneurial space. For example, although minorities account for thirty-eight percent of the population, they own just nineteen percent of businesses. Despite numerous... 2021  
Winnie F. Taylor FINTECH AND RACE-BASED INEQUALITY IN THE HOME MORTGAGE AND AUTO FINANCING MARKETS 33 Loyola Consumer Law Review 366 (2021) The racial gap in wealth in the United States is astonishing. A 2019 survey found that the typical White family has eight times the wealth of the typical African American family and five times the wealth of the typical Hispanic family. Unfortunately, discrimination in the home mortgage market and the lending industry has contributed greatly to the... 2021 Yes
Pamela Foohey , Nathalie Martin FINTECH'S ROLE IN EXACERBATING OR REDUCING THE WEALTH GAP 2021 University of Illinois Law Review 459 (2021) Research shows that Black, Latinx, and other minorities pay more for credit and banking services, and that wealth accumulation differs starkly between their households and white households. The link between debt inequality and the wealth gap, however, remains less thoroughly explored, particularly in light of new credit products and debt-like... 2021 Yes
Ernesto Hernández-López FOOD OPPRESSION: LESSONS FROM SKIMMED FOR A PANDEMIC 57 California Western Law Review 243 (Spring, 2021) In her book, Skimmed: Breastfeeding, Race, and Injustice, Andrea Freeman powerfully illustrates how differences in circumstances shape the decisions Black and White mothers make to feed their infants. Skimmed explores an important topic, which surely impacts each person as newborns--breastfeeding. Specifically, the book presents how White privilege... 2021  
Co-Dean David Lopez FOREWORD 72 Rutgers University Law Review 1265 (Winter, 2021) That everything you see will soon alter and cease to exist. Think of how many changes you have already seen. The world is nothing but change. -Marcus Aurelius The general laws of migration hold that the greater the obstacles and the farther the distance traveled, the more ambitious the migrants. -Isabel Wilkerson History will have to record... 2021  
Paul Butler FOREWORD TO THE REPUBLICATION OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND THE CRIMINAL LAW 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1443 (Special Issue 2021) Twenty-four years later, je ne regrette rien. I do not mean that I got everything exactly right, but I miss my youthful exuberance. I wonder, in the words of Birdman, What happened to that boy? Here is one of the passages that, introspect, seems most poignant: I argue that but for the fruits of slavery and entrenched racism, African Americans... 2021  
Eric K. Yamamoto , Susan K. Serrano FOREWORD TO THE REPUBLICATION OF RACIALIZING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1383 (Special Issue 2021) Systemic racism! The burgeoning 2020 Black Lives Matter protests vaulted this formerly whispered phrase into mainstream public consciousness. Through news headlines, social media, educational classes, opinion essays, word of mouth, and more, America grappled with the enormity of racism as a form of oppression of people and communities, as... 2021  
T. Alexander Aleinikoff FOREWORD TO THE REPUBLICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION IN CONTEXT: THE CONTINUING SIGNIFICANCE OF RACISM 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1315 (Special Issue 2021) It is disturbing--to say the least--that an article written nearly three decades ago based on an assertion of the continuing existence of racism in the United States can be seen as meriting republication, not for its historical interest but because of its current relevance. The article began with descriptions of the brutal murder of Emmet Till in... 2021  
Jennifer Hickey FROM APPLES TO ORCHARDS: A VULNERABILITY APPROACH TO POLICE MISCONDUCT 26 Texas Journal on Civil Liberties & Civil Rights 1 (Fall, 2020/Spring, 2021) Introduction. 2 I. The Evolution of Section 1983. 4 A. Period of Expansion and Refinement. 7 B. The Court Pulls Back. 8 II. The Relentless Individualism of Section 1983. 11 A. Myth of the Bad Apple. 12 B. The Punitive Cycle. 15 1. Punishing Individual Officers. 15 i. Criminal Justice Response. 16 ii. Civil Justice Response. 17 2. Punishing... 2021  
Christopher Cruz FROM DIGITAL DISPARITY TO EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE: CLOSING THE OPPORTUNITY AND ACHIEVEMENT GAPS FOR LOWINCOME, BLACK, AND LATINX STUDENTS 24 Harvard Latinx Law Review 33 (Spring, 2021) The health and economic crises brought about by COVID-19 in 2020 sent society into a downward spiral with the most marginalized groups in the United States feeling disproportionate impacts. For low-income, Black, and Latinx students in particular, school shutdowns and the transition to online learning exacerbated pre-existing inequities in access... 2021 Yes
Richard Delgado GROUNDHOG LAW 21 Journal of Law in Society 1 (Winter, 2021) 1 Zoom! In which Rodrigo Returns in an Online Persona. 2 I. Rodrigo's Hypothesis: Speech and Action in the Age of Coronavirus. 4 II. In Which Rodrigo Ponders Whether Law is An Academic Discipline Even if it Generates Little Knowledge and Aims at None. 6 A. In Which Rodrigo Explains Law's Recursive Quality, a Metaphor for Our Locked-in... 2021  
  HABEAS RELIEF FOR STATE PRISONERS 50 Georgetown Law Journal Annual Review of Criminal Procedure 1074 (2021) Under 28 U.S.C. § 2254, a person in custody pursuant to a state court judgment may challenge the conviction and sentence in federal court by applying for a writ of habeas corpus. Habeas corpus petitions filed by state prisoners are subject to the Rules Governing Section 2254 Cases in the United States District Courts (§ 2254 Rules). Section 2254... 2021  
Jennifer M. Smith , Elliot O. Jackson HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES: A MODEL FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION 14 Florida A & M University Law Review 103 (Winter, 2021) The whole world opened to me when I learned to read. ~ Mary McLeod Bethune Hungry for freedom and knowledge, enslaved Blacks engaged in a massive general strike against slavery by transferring their labor from the Confederate planter to the Northern invader, and this decided the Civil War. In 1865, the North conquered the South, and slavery... 2021  
Benjamin Justice HOBBLING: THE EFFECTS OF PROACTIVE POLICING AND MASS IMPRISONMENT ON CHILDREN'S EDUCATION 17 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 31 (2021) education, criminal justice, school, policing, incarceration, pipeline Researchers have written a good deal in the last two decades about the relationship between public education and criminal justice as a pipeline by which public school practices correlate with or cause increased lifetime risk for incarceration for Black and Latinx youth. This... 2021 Yes
Rachel D. Godsil, Sarah E. Waldeck HOME EQUITY: RETHINKING RACE AND FEDERAL HOUSING POLICY 98 Denver Law Review 523 (Spring, 2021) Neighborhoods shape every element of our lives. Where we live determines economic opportunities; our exposure to police and pollution; and the availability of positive amenities for a healthy life. Home inequity--both financial and racial--is not accidental. Federal government programs have armed white people with agency to construct white spaces... 2021  
Jennifer C. Nash HOME IS WHERE THE BIRTH IS: RACE, RISK, AND LABOR DURING COVID-19 32 Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 103 (2021) On April 28, 2020, Dr. W. Spencer McClelland--an obstetrician at New York City's Lenox Hill Hospital--published an editorial in The New York Times that announced, If you planned on delivering in a New York City hospital, don't change your plans. McClelland's plea was a response to an outpouring of news reports focused on pregnant people... 2021  
Dorothy Roberts HOW I BECAME A FAMILY POLICING ABOLITIONIST 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 455 (July, 2021) My book Shattered Bonds: The Color of Child Welfare, published in 2001, documented the racial realities of family policing in America. At the time, more than a half million children had been taken from their parents by child protection services (CPS) and were in foster care. Black families were the most likely of any group to be torn apart. Black... 2021  
Karla M. McKanders IMMIGRATION AND RACIAL JUSTICE: ENFORCING THE BORDERS OF BLACKNESS 37 Georgia State University Law Review 1139 (Summer, 2021) Black immigrants are invisible at the intersection of their race and immigration status. Until recently, conversations on border security, unlawful immigration, and national security obscured racially motivated laws seeking to halt the blackening and browning of America. This Article engages with the impact of immigration enforcement at the... 2021  
Kevin R. Johnson IMMIGRATION LAW LESSONS FROM DEPORTED AMERICANS: LIFE AFTER DEPORTATION TO MEXICO 50 Southwestern Law Review 305 (2021) The last few years saw deeply troubling developments in U.S. immigration law and enforcement. The Obama administration annually removed hundreds of thousands of noncitizens from the United States, which earned the President the unflattering nickname of Deporter in Chief. After making immigration enforcement the cornerstone of his 2016... 2021  
Itay Ravid INCONSPICUOUS VICTIMS 25 Lewis & Clark Law Review 529 (2021) Recent debates on racial inequalities in the criminal justice system focus on offenders while neglecting the other side of the criminal equation--victims of crime. Such scholarly oversight is surprising given the similarly deep racial disparities in the treatment of victims, manifested in different stages of the criminal justice system. Delving... 2021  
Melissa R. Nadel , George Pesta , Thomas Blomberg , William D. Bales INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNITY CONTEXT IN DECISIONS TO DIVERT OR ARREST 55 Law and Society Review 320 (June, 2021) Diversion programs are increasingly being implemented as an alternative to more severe sanctions, especially within juvenile justice. The civil citation program in Florida is unique in that it diverts juveniles away from the justice system at the earliest decision point of arrest. However, despite its growing use in a number of states, there is... 2021  
Susan Ayres INSIDE THE MASTER'S GATES: RESOURCES AND TOOLS TO DISMANTLE RACISM AND SEXISM IN HIGHER EDUCATION 21 Journal of Law in Society 20 (Winter, 2021) INTRODUCTION. 21 I. DISMANTLING THE MASTER'S HOUSE: RESOURCES. 28 II. SUBSTANCE OF FIRE AND THE STORYTELLING MOVEMENT. 31 A. The Backstory. 31 B. Overview of Substance of Fire. 33 C. The Case for Storytelling. 35 III. SUBSTANCE OF FIRE: NARRATIVES AND COUNTER-STORYTELLING. 37 A. Lack of Mentors, Microaggressions. 38 B. Performing Gender, Safe... 2021  
Anirudh Krishna INTERNET.GOV: TECH COMPANIES AS GOVERNMENT AGENTS AND THE FUTURE OF THE FIGHT AGAINST CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE 109 California Law Review 1581 (August, 2021) The online proliferation of child sexual abuse material (CSAM), commonly referred to as child pornography, is a problem of massive scale. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), a private nonprofit specially authorized by Congress to serve as the nation's clearinghouse for reports of CSAM imagery, works with law enforcement... 2021  
Angela S. Boettcher, Quentin H. Morse, Nora Rainey Olson Cooke, Erin McLaughlin, Caroline Young, Charissa Wood, Sasha Strong, Natasha Viteri, Taylor Schad INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE: A RETROSPECTIVE ON RACE IN AMERICA 92 University of Colorado Law Review 1259 (Special Issue 2021) On May 25th, 2020, George Floyd was arrested by four Minneapolis Police Officers for attempting to pass a counterfeit twenty-dollar bill. To subdue a nonviolent Mr. Floyd, Officer Derek Chauvin knelt on Mr. Floyd's neck. Despite Mr. Floyd repeatedly gasping I can't breathe and eventually losing consciousness, Officer Chauvin held him pinned for... 2021  
Craig Cowie IS THE CFPB STILL ON THE BEAT? THE CFPB'S (NON)RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 82 Montana Law Review 41 (Winter, 2021) I. Introduction. 42 II. The Economic Impact of the Pandemic to Date. 44 III. The CFPB's Enforcement Response to the Pandemic. 52 A. The CFPB Took No Public Enforcement Action Under Director Kraninger Specifically Related to the Pandemic. 57 B. Instead, CFPB Brought Smaller Enforcement Actions. 62 1. Methodology. 64 2. The CFPB Initially Filed Few... 2021  
Tanya Katerí Hernández , © 2020 IS THERE A "MULATTO ESCAPE HATCH" OUT OF RACISM?: A REFLECTION ON MULTIRACIAL EXCEPTIONALISM DURING A TIME OF #BLACKLIVESMATTER 34 Journal of Civil Rights & Economic Development 65 (Spring, 2021) A mulatto escape hatch is an escape from the disabilities of blackness for some colored people. To have a symposium organized to review the ideas in my book, Multiracials and Civil Rights: Mixed-Race Stories of Discrimination, is an honor, and the JCRED editors, along with their dynamic Faculty Advisors Elaine Chiu and Rosa Castello, have my... 2021  
David A. Grenardo IT'S WORTH A SHOT: CAN SPORTS COMBAT RACISM IN THE UNITED STATES? 12 Harvard Journal of Sports & Entertainment Law 237 (Spring, 2021) Racism has stained this country throughout its history, and racism persists today in the United States, including in sports. Sports represent a reflection of society and its ills, but they can also provide a powerful means to combat racism. This article examines the state of racism in society and sports both historically and today. It also provides... 2021  
Eisha Jain JAILHOUSE IMMIGRATION SCREENING 70 Duke Law Journal 1703 (May, 2021) Within the past decade, U.S. interior immigration enforcement has shifted away from the street and into the jailhouse. The rationale behind jailhouse screening is to target enforcement efforts on those who fall within federal removal priorities. This Article shows how a program undertaken with the stated aim of targeting immigration enforcement has... 2021  
William S. Laufer , Robert C. Hughes JUSTICE UNDONE 58 American Criminal Law Review 155 (Winter, 2021) There is far more justice that is not served than served in our criminal justice system. Well more than half of all offending and victimization fails to make its way into the criminal justice system. An additional share of wrongdoing from initial police contact to the end of the criminal process is diverted or exits. A host of additional personal,... 2021  
Samuel Vincent Jones LAW SCHOOLS, CULTURAL COMPETENCY, AND ANTI-BLACK RACISM: THE LIBERTY OF DISCRIMINATION 21 Berkeley Journal of African-American Law & Policy 84 (2021) Introduction. 84 I. Do Law Schools Have Liberty to Discriminate Against Black Law Students?. 86 A. The Black Law Student Experience. 87 B. Law Schools and the Liberty to Foster Anti-Black Racism. 90 II. Should Law Schools Require Cultural Competency Instruction as a Means to Curtail Anti-Black Racial Discrimination?. 96 A. Cultural Competency... 2021  
Catherine J.K. Sandoval , Patricia A. Cain , Stephen F. Diamond , Allen S. Hammond , Jean C. Love , Stephen E. Smith , Solmaz Nabipour, M.D. LEGAL EDUCATION DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: PUT HEALTH, SAFETY AND EQUITY FIRST 61 Santa Clara Law Review 367 (2021) The COVID-19 viral pandemic exposed equity and safety culture gaps in American legal education. Legal education forms part of America's Critical Infrastructure whose continuity is important to the economy, public safety, democracy, and the national security of the United States. To address the COVID-19 pandemic and prepare for future viral... 2021  
Raymond H. Brescia LESSONS FROM THE PRESENT: THREE CRISES AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON THE LEGAL PROFESSION 49 Hofstra Law Review 607 (Spring, 2021) The United States faces three simultaneous crises: a pandemic, a civil rights reckoning, and a crisis of democracy. The first of these crises has sparked dramatic--though potentially temporary--changes to the practice of law: moving much legal work to remote settings almost overnight, after the profession had largely resisted making such... 2021  
Sarah J. Schendel LISTEN!: AMPLIFYING THE EXPERIENCES OF BLACK LAW SCHOOL GRADUATES IN 2020 100 Nebraska Law Review 73 (2021) C1-2TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction. 74 II. The Survey. 79 A. Methodology. 79 B. Survey Questions. 80 III. An Overview of Responses. 81 A. A Grief Gap: The Mental, Physical, and Emotional Toll of COVID-19. 81 B. The Mental, Physical, and Emotional Impact of Racism. 83 C. The Impact of Changes to the Bar Exam. 87 1. Postponement. 87 2.... 2021  
Kathryn Evans MAKING WORKFARE MORE FAIR: PROTECTING WORKERS IN WELFARE PROGRAMS FROM SEXUAL HARASSMENT 36 Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice 150 (2021) Every year, hundreds of thousands of adults in the United States work full-time jobs through programs known as workfare as a requirement to collecting public benefits. Although these individuals work full time, their legal status as employees is not as clear as it should be. That fact, along with other factors such as their status as temporary... 2021  
Megan Doherty Bea , Emily S. Taylor Poppe MARGINALIZED LEGAL CATEGORIES: SOCIAL INEQUALITY, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND THE LAWS OF INTESTACY 55 Law and Society Review 252 (June, 2021) Social classifications are increasingly interrelated, far-reaching, and consequential for socioeconomic outcomes. We use the concept of marginalized legal categories to describe how the law disadvantages individuals or groups by transforming inherently ordered social classifications into consequential legal categories, employing intestacy laws as... 2021  
Jamillah Bowman Williams MAXIMIZING #METOO: INTERSECTIONALITY & THE MOVEMENT 62 Boston College Law Review 1797 (June, 2021) Introduction. 1798 I. The Law Continues to Fail Women of Color Thirty Years After Kimberlé Crenshaw's Intersectionality Insights. 1809 A. Intersectionality Theory. 1811 B. Federal Protection Disproportionately Excludes Women of Color. 1814 C. Mandatory Arbitration Silences Women of Color. 1818 D. Women of Color Are Marginalized Due to False... 2021  
Russell K. Robinson MAYOR PETE, OBERGEFELL GAYS, AND WHITE MALE PRIVILEGE 69 Buffalo Law Review 295 (April, 2021) 296 Introduction. 296 I. Challenging Anti-Gay Stereotypes. 303 II. Is Pete Gay Enough?. 309 III. Pete as a Symbol of Respectability Politics. 316 A. An Examination of Racialized Respectability Politics in the Don't Ask, Don't Tell and Marriage Equality Movements. 317 B. Analyzing Buttigieg's Candidacy as the Embodiment of the Gay and... 2021  
Todd J. Clark , Caleb Gregory Conrad , André Douglas Pond Cummings , Amy Dunn Johnson MEEK MILL'S TRAUMA: BRUTAL POLICING AS AN ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCE 33 Saint Thomas Law Review 158 (Spring, 2021) Meek Mill's life and career have been punctuated by trauma, from his childhood lived on the streets of Philadelphia, through his rise to fame and eventual arrival as one of hip hop's household names. In his 2018 track Trauma, Meek Mill describes, in revealing prose, just how the traumatic experiences he endured personally impacted and harmed him.... 2021  
James S. Liebman , Kayla C. Butler , Ian Buksunski MINE THE GAP: USING RACIAL DISPARITIES TO EXPOSE AND ERADICATE RACISM 30 Southern California Review of Law & Social Justice 1 (Winter, 2021) For decades, lawyers and legal scholars have disagreed over how much resource redistribution to expect from federal courts and Congress in satisfaction of the Fourteenth Amendment's promise of equal protection. Of particular importance to this debate and to the nation given its kaleidoscopic history of inequality, is the question of racial... 2021  
Dan Morenoff MISTAKEN HERITAGE: HOW A STATUTORY MISREADING HAS DENIED CONGRESS' INTENDED BENEFICIARIES PROTECTION FOR HALF A CENTURY 22 Federalist Society Review 226 (August 19, 2021) Note from the Editor: The Federalist Society takes no positions on particular legal and public policy matters. Any expressions of opinion are those of the author. Whenever we publish an article that advocates for a particular position, we offer links to other perspectives on the issue. We also invite responses from our readers. To join the debate,... 2021  
Moon Duchin, Douglas M. Spencer MODELS, RACE, AND THE LAW 130 Yale Law Journal Forum 744 (March 8, 2021) Capitalizing on recent advances in algorithmic sampling, The Race-Blind Future of Voting Rights explores the implications of the long-standing conservative dream of certified race neutrality in redistricting. Computers seem promising because they are excellent at not taking race into account--but computers only do what you tell them to... 2021  
Marisa K. Sanchez MODERNIZING DISCRIMINATION LAW: THE ADOPTION OF AN INTERSECTIONAL LENS 23 Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice 1 (2021) Introduction. 2 I. What is Intersectionality?. 6 A. The Theory of Intersectionality. 6 B. Intersectional Jurisprudence. 9 II. Transgender Latinx Community. 19 A. Legal Issues Faced by Transgender People. 20 B. Legal Issues Faced by the Latinx Community. 30 C. Intersections of Race and Gender Identity. 38 III. Solutions. 41 A. Title VII... 2021 Yes
Erika K. Wilson MONOPOLIZING WHITENESS 134 Harvard Law Review 2382 (May, 2021) C1-2CONTENTS Introduction. 2384 I. White-Student Segregation and Social Closure. 2388 A. Defining Social Closure. 2390 B. Social Closure and Racial Segregation in Public Schools: Monopolies. 2392 1. Scarcity. 2393 2. Exclusion. 2396 3. Monopolization. 2400 C. The Normative Case for Regulating White-Student Segregation. 2404 1. Harms to Democracy.... 2021  
Amna A. Akbar, Sameer M. Ashar, Jocelyn Simonson MOVEMENT LAW 73 Stanford Law Review 821 (April, 2021) In this Article we make the case for movement law, an approach to legal scholarship grounded in solidarity, accountability, and engagement with grassroots organizing and left social movements. In contrast to law and social movements--a field that studies the relationship between lawyers, legal process, and social change--movement law... 2021  
Clara Presler MUTUAL DEFERENCE BETWEEN HOSPITALS AND COURTS: HOW MANDATED REPORTING FROM MEDICAL PROVIDERS HARMS FAMILIES 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 733 (July, 2021) This Article explores the phenomenon of mutual deference between the medical and legal systems to show that placing mandated reporting responsibilities on clinicians results in lasting harm for families. On the medical side, clinicians are obligated to defer any reasonable suspicion that a child may be at risk to the legal system; their concern... 2021  
Marie Gottschalk NO STAR STATE: WHAT'S RIGHT AND WRONG ABOUT CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM IN TEXAS 19 Seattle Journal for Social Justice 927 (Spring, 2021) For more than a decade, Texas has been widely hailed across the political spectrum as a model for criminal justice reform. The origin story of the so-called Texas Miracle dates back to 2007 when legislators decided against spending an estimated $2 billion on new prison construction to accommodate projections that the state would need an additional... 2021  
Ariel Jurow Kleiman NONMARKET CRIMINAL JUSTICE FEES 72 Hastings Law Journal 517 (February, 2021) The public finance literature tells us that user fees will introduce market-like efficiency to public good provision. Meanwhile, criminal justice scholars note that criminal justice fees have run amok, causing crippling debt, undermining reentry efforts, and raising civil rights and constitutional concerns. This Article reconciles these seemingly... 2021  
Sarah Houston NOW THE BORDER IS EVERYWHERE: WHY A BORDER SEARCH EXCEPTION BASED ON RACE CAN NO LONGER STAND 47 Mitchell Hamline Law Review 197 (February, 2021) I. Introduction. 197 II. Historical Background. 201 A. History of Expedited Removal. 201 B. Immigration Exceptionalism on the Border. 203 III. Race Can No Longer Justify Immigration Stops and Searches. 207 A. Demographic Shift--Latinos as a Majority Presence. 207 B. The Creeping Expansion of Immigration Enforcement Past the Border. 211 C. Vagueness... 2021 Yes
Hugh Cassidy , Tennecia Dacass , Kansas State University, Central Washington University OCCUPATIONAL LICENSING AND IMMIGRANTS 64 Journal of Law & Economics 1 (February, 2021) This study examines the incidence and impact of occupational licensing on immigrants using two sources of data: the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation. We find that immigrants are significantly less likely to have a license than similar natives and that this gap is largest for men, workers in the highest... 2021  
Georgia Decker OCCUPATIONAL LICENSING AS A BARRIER FOR PEOPLE WITH CRIMINAL RECORDS: PROPOSALS TO IMPROVE ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAW TO ADDRESS ADVERSE EMPLOYMENT IMPACTS FROM THE CRIMINAL LEGAL SYSTEM 49 Fordham Urban Law Journal 189 (November, 2021) Introduction. 190 I. Occupational Licensure and Problems for People with Criminal Histories. 195 A. Occupational Licensure. 195 i. What is Occupational Licensure?. 195 ii. Marked Increase in Licensure Since the 1950s. 197 B. Specific Issues People with Criminal Records Face with Regards to Occupational Licensure. 198 i. Good Moral Character... 2021  
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