AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Term in Title or Summary
Chad G. Marzen, J.D. Hispanics in the Heartland: the Fremont, Nebraska Immigration Ordinance and the Future of Latino Civil Rights 29 Harvard Journal on Racial & Ethnic Justice 69 (Spring 2013) We want to be the voice of those who have no voice, in order to cry out against every assault of our human rights so that justice is done. -Archbishop Oscar Romero As individuals drive from outside of Nebraska to within its state's borders, a large sign greets motorists with a friendly slogan: Nebraska: The Good Life. With its traditions,... 2013 Yes
Mary Dolores Guerra Latina and Latino Judges: Changing the Complexion of the Bench 9 Florida A & M University Law Review 145 (Fall 2013) Although having a diverse bench is instrumental to a fair judicial system, the first Mexican American was not appointed to the federal bench until 1961. In that year, President John F. Kennedy appointed Reynaldo G. Garza, to the U.S. federal bench as a district court judge. Judge Garza hoped that by becoming an effective jurist he would quell any... 2013 Yes
Jocelyn A. Cortez, Esq. Legacy in the Making: the Las Vegas Latino Bar Association 21-SEP Nevada Lawyer 8 (September, 2013) The Las Vegas Latino Bar Association (LBA), in its inception and evolution, embodies the dynamism of the growing bar of Hispanic attorneys in southern Nevada. Since its foundation 14 years ago, the LBA has grown as a professional organization that not only supports its members in their trajectory of success, but also one that serves as a valuable... 2013 Yes
Edgar Flores Legal Service Awareness of the Latino Population in Southern Nevada 19 Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy 33 (Spring 2013) I. Introduction. 34 II. Methodology of the Survey. 35 A. Random Sampling. 35 B. Survey Questions. 37 C. Method Used to Test the Data. 39 III. Analysis. 39 IV. Consequences. 42 A. Why the Notario Público. 42 B. Nevada Rules for Notarios Públicos. 43 V. Solutions. 45 VI. Limitations. 47 VII. Conclusion. 48 Appendix: Data. 50 A. The Raw Data. 50 B.... 2013 Yes
Margaret E. Montoya Máscaras Y Trenzas: Reflexiones Un Proyecto De Identidad Y Análisis a Través De Veinte Adnos 36 Harvard Journal of Law & Gender 469 (Summer 2013) On the street at night I whistled popular tunes from the Beatles and Vivaldi's Four Seasons. The tension drained from people's bodies when they heard me. Brent Staples, quoted by Claude M. Steele From their inception, names--including first names, surnames, names of groups, and even story, book, and academic article titles--are embedded with... 2013  
Kathryn Duque Lenhart Multiculturalism and Feminism for Hispanic Immigrant Women Accused of Drug Crimes 2013 Brigham Young University Law Review 1613 (2013) A Laotian man kidnaps and rapes a woman in keeping with the Hmong custom of marriage-by-capture. An Iraqi father forces his minor daughters to marry adult Iraqi men. A Chinese immigrant kills his wife for infidelity. A Japanese woman kills her children in the honorable Japanese tradition of mother-child suicide. Cases such as these, which all took... 2013 Yes
Siria L. Gutierrez, Esq. , Leslie M. Nino, Esq. , Sylvia Tiscareño, Esq. Nevada's Hispanic Leaders 21-SEP Nevada Lawyer 16 (September, 2013) What does being Hispanic look like? This is an impossible question to answer. One might sit and ponder the notion, but reliance upon a surname, skin color or facial feature is not enough to reach an educated conclusion. It is undisputed that Nevada has its own rich Hispanic heritage to celebrate. The Battle Born State was originally part of Mexico,... 2013 Yes
  Program Seeks Lawyers to Help Hispanic and Women Farmers in Discrimination Claims Process 38-FEB Montana Lawyer 16 (February, 2013) The Farmers' Legal Action Group, Inc. (FLAG) and the National Agricultural Law Center is seeking lawyers to assist Hispanic and women farmers to complete and submit claims forms in a non-judicial process to resolve past claims of discrimination in USDA Farm Loan Programs. The USDA Hispanic and Women Farmers and Ranchers Claims Process (HWFRCP) is... 2013 Yes
Brent G. McCune, M.S., J.D. , Lisa J. Soto, J.D. , William G. Weaver, J.D., Ph.D. , Alejandra Hobbs, Lic. The Disappearing Mexican-american Law Student 19 Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy 1 (Spring 2013) The Republic's young men are the most virile and unwasted in the world, and they pant for enterprise worthy of their power. . . . [T]he American Republic is a part of the movement of a race--the most masterful race of history--and race movements are not to be stayed by the hand of man. They are mighty answers to divine questions. Albert Beveridge,... 2013  
Kevin R. Johnson The Keyes to the Nation's Educational Future: the Latina/o Struggle for Educational Equity 90 Denver University Law Review 1231 (2013) This Essay outlines emerging Latina/o educational equity issues in the new millennium. Although Latina/os face challenges similar to those of other minority groups, those challenges differ in important respects from those of other groups because of the complexities of the longstanding and ongoing migration of Latina/os to the United States.... 2013 Yes
Elky Almaraz The Underrepresentation of Hispanic Women in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields: What Can Be Done to "Curie" the Problem? 16 Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice 153 (2013) I. Introduction. 154 II. The Path That has Led to Today's Underrepresentation of Minority Women in the Sciences. 156 A. The Uphill Battle: The Legal History of Hispanics and Women in Education and Employment. 156 B. Hispanic Women in STEM Fields: Lack of Support for the Doubly Discriminated. 160 III. Analyzing the Problem: Potential Causes,... 2013 Yes
Sally J. Kenney Wise Latinas, Strategic Minnesotans, and the Feminist Standpoint: the Backlash Against Women Judges 36 Thomas Jefferson Law Review 43 (Fall, 2013) C1-3Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION. 43 II. BACKLASH. 44 A. Backlash Against Women Judges. 48 B. The Backlash Against Then-Judge Sotomayor. 52 C. Sotomayor's Response. 55 III. DO WOMEN JUDGE DIFFERENTLY THAN MEN?. 57 IV. ALL ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO GENDER BIAS. 64 V. WISE LATINAS: A CLOSER LOOK. 67 A. The Actual Speech. 68 B. Hall v. Hall. 71 VI. WISE... 2013 Yes
María Pabón López An Essay Examining the Murder of Luis Ramírez and the Emergence of Hate Crimes Against Latino Immigrants in the United States 44 Arizona State Law Journal 155 (Spring 2012) [N]ot unlike acts of terrorism, hate crimes are about messages. Offenders use a criminal event to put the members of an entire group on notice, by example, that they are not welcome in a community, in a workplace, on a college campus, or at school. By contrast, if a window is broken in a simple act of vandalism, the offenders typically have no... 2012 Yes
Kasi Chadwick An Overview of the Implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for Low-income Hispanics in Texas: a Case for Cross-border Health Care Models 13 Houston Journal of Health Law & Policy 103 (Fall 2012) Health reform, especially health reform in Texas, may not result in a system that allows access for all. This paper outlines how, in Texas, those remaining uninsured even after the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will likely be low-income Hispanics. A solution is proposed in cross-border health models that utilize... 2012 Yes
George A. Martínez Arizona, Immigration, and Latinos: the Epistemology of Whiteness, the Geography of Race, Interest Convergence, and the View from the Perspective of Critical Theory 44 Arizona State Law Journal 175 (Spring 2012) I. Introduction. 176 II. A Critical Perspective on Arizona and the New Immigration Law and Other Laws Impacting Latinos. 179 A. The Epistemology of Whiteness and the Creation of a White Geography or Space in Arizona. 180 B. The Outlawing of Ethnic Studies in Arizona and the Segregation of Knowledge as a Corollary to the Establishment of a White... 2012 Yes
Steven W. Bender , Francisco Valdes At and Beyond Fifteen--mapping Latcrit Theory, Community, and Praxis 22 Berkeley La Raza Law Journal 301 (2012) I. Introduction. 302 II. Taking Stock: LatCrit at Fifteen. 304 A. Critical Roots: LatCrit Theory, Praxis, and Community, 1995-2010. 304 1. OutCrit Democracy in Theory and Practice: Values, Functions, Guideposts, and Postulates. 305 2. The LatCrit Record: Highlights and Shortfalls in Substance and Method . 311 a. Substantive Highlights: Lats... 2012 Yes
Olympia Duhart Cluster Introduction - Education and Pedagogy - on Identity and Instruction 48 California Western Law Review 453 (Spring 2012) The instructor said, Go home and write a page tonight. And let that page come out of you-- Then, it will be true. --Langston Hughes The narrator in Langston Hughes's poem about a colored twenty-year-old responding to an assignment from a white, older instructor challenges us to think about the ways in which identity can inform instruction. Who... 2012  
Margaret Montoya Cluster Introduction - Legal Education, Social Justice, and the Law School Dean: Latinas at the Center 48 California Western Law Review 417 (Spring 2012) The opening of LatCrit XVI in San Diego, CA, on October 9, 2011, coincided with the events that are identified as the start of the global expression of the Occupy Movement. The Occupy Movement began to gain media attention on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park in New York City. By October 9, protests had taken place or were ongoing in eighty-two... 2012 Yes
Caroline Joan (“Kay”) S. Picart Colloquium Proceedings: Critical Pedagogy, Race/gender & Intellectual Property 48 California Western Law Review 493 (Spring 2012) The vantage point from which I engage LatCrit XVI's emphases on Global Justice: Theories, Histories, Futures is rooted personally, as a body and entity marked by multiple hybridities, but also as a trained philosopher concerned with metaphysical and ethical questions of truth in relation to the generation of narratives. In other words, I engage... 2012  
Steven W. Bender En Paz Descanse: Remembering Keith Aoki's Contributions Toward Latina/o Equality 90 Oregon Law Review 1265 (2012) In memorializing and celebrating Keith's treasure trove of scholarly contributions, we organized the Oregon Symposium around the three subjects of intellectual property, Asian American jurisprudence, and critical geography/local government. Still, it was impossible to capture the breadth and depth of Keith's scholarly work in three panels, in a... 2012 Yes
Ernesto Hernández-López Foreword: Global Justice, History, and Law: Between Fela's Teachers Teaching "Nonsense" and Bob Marley's "Small Axe" for a Big Tree 42 California Western International Law Journal 265 (Spring 2012) Within sight of the political border with Mexico while engulfed by the view of the Pacific Ocean to its west, LatCrit XVI met on Harbor Island in San Diego, California from October 7 to 9, 2011. This dual imagery of immediate exclusion created by an international boundary and a vast ocean of opportunity acted as the thematic backdrop for this... 2012  
Richard Delgado Four Reservations on Civil Rights Reasoning by Analogy: the Case of Latinos and Other Nonblack Groups 112 Columbia Law Review 1883 (November, 2012) The protection of civil rights in the United States encompasses remedies for at least five separate groups. Native Americans have suffered extermination, removal, denial of sovereignty, and destruction of culture; Latinos, conquest and the indignities of a racially discriminatory immigration system. Asian Americans suffered exclusion, wartime... 2012 Yes
Shari S. Lindsey, J.D. Global-city Status at the Expense of Black and Latino Youth: How Chicago's Tif Districts Disparately Impact Cps Students 6 DePaul Journal for Social Justice 23 (Fall, 2012) On March 19, 2011, over 250 members of the Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) and other education advocates gathered together at Jenner Elementary, one of the last neighborhood schools in Chicago's Cabrini Green area. The group was prepared to march in peaceful protest to Lincoln Park's Clybourn Corridor, where they planned to rally outside the upscale... 2012 Yes
Leah R. Sauter Hispanic in Everything but its Voting Patterns: Redistricting in Texas and Competing Definitions of Minority Representation 46 Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 251 (Winter 2012) Based on unprecedented population growth revealed by the 2010 census, Texas picked up four additional congressional districts. Although minorities made up 89% of the population growth between 2000 and 2010, Texas lawmakers added only one Hispanic opportunity district to the map. Voting-rights groups alleged that this violated § 2 of the Voting... 2012 Yes
Leticia M. Diaz Hispanic Leaders for the Larger Community: the Surge in the Hispanic Population Creates Opportunities for Increased Diversity and Inclusiveness 48 California Western Law Review 425 (Spring 2012) As the first Hispanic dean of Barry University Dwayne O. Andreas School of Law and the first female Cuban American dean of any ABA accredited law school in the country, I face the non-unique challenge of attracting minority students and maintaining diversity in the law school community. Fortunately, the law school's location in Central Florida has... 2012 Yes
Angela L. Dixon Latina Voices: Smart Talk 50-DEC Houston Lawyer 40 (November/December, 2012) When Sofia Adrogué was approached four years ago by Minerva Perez, an award-winning broadcast journalist and long time television anchor, with the idea of co-hosting and co-producing a show, she did not know what was in store for her and the impact it would make on the community. Minerva Pérez was the mistress of ceremonies at a Greater Houston... 2012 Yes
Camilo M. Ortiz Latinos Nowhere in Sight: Erased by Racism, Nativism, the Black-white Binary, and Authoritarianism 13 Rutgers Race & the Law Review 29 (2012) In May 2010, two weeks after the Arizona state legislature passed Senate Bill 1070 (SB 1070), Juan Varela was fatally shot in the neck by his next door neighbor, Gary Kelley. Prior to the killing, Kelley had repeatedly said to Varela, Hurry up and go back to Mexico, or you're gonna die[!] It is uncertain what specific events led Kelley to shoot... 2012 Yes
Jessica A. Solyom , Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy Memento Mori : Policing the Minds and Bodies of Indigenous Latinas/os in Arizona 42 California Western International Law Journal 473 (Spring 2012) The state of Arizona is home to a large number of American Indian communities. The majority of the state, and its current boundaries, arose as a result of the Mexican American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Today, Arizona houses the largest number of American Indian tribal reservations in the United States (currently twenty-two),... 2012 Yes
SpearIt Priorities of Pedagogy: Classroom Justice in the Law School Setting 48 California Western Law Review 467 (Spring 2012) Teachers' expectations cannot be divorced from their students' expectations in turn. In the worst case scenarios, teaching results in disappointment and leaves people on both sides of the podium feeling unfulfilled. Students feel like they are left holding a Costco-sized-receipt-cum-diploma for a mediocre learning experience. In turn, this... 2012  
M. Kristen Hefner, University of Delaware Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys. By Victor M. Rios. New York: New York University Press, 2011. 218 Pp. $20.00 Paper 46 Law and Society Review 942 (December, 2012) Punitive strategies such as tough on crime and zero tolerance policies that have traditionally been restricted to the field of criminal justice are currently being implemented in mainstream institutions that serve youthful populations, such as schools and civic centers. While examinations of punitive discourses and practices, poverty, and youth... 2012 Yes
María Pabón López Reflections about Legal Education and Justice from the Perspective of a Latina Law School Dean 48 California Western Law Review 431 (Spring 2012) I am deeply appreciative of this opportunity to share my thoughts about these two critical topics--the training of lawyers in our times, and equality and social justice in the United States and globally. While I am deeply aware of the harsh challenges facing legal education and justice in the world, I am also optimistic and regard such challenges... 2012 Yes
Jennifer L. Rosato Reflections of a Reluctant Pioneer 48 California Western Law Review 445 (Spring 2012) I have mixed feelings about being one of four Latina Deans in the United States. I feel quite honored and privileged to be part of such a distinguished group of Latinas, but at the same time continue to be surprised that our group is still so small--and that there were only two of us just a year ago. In the announcement for the Deans' Roundtable at... 2012  
Mariela Olivares The Impact of Recessionary Politics on Latino-american and Immigrant Families: Schip Success and Dream Act Failure 55 Howard Law Journal 359 (Winter 2012) INTRODUCTION. 359 I. SCHIP SURVIVES THE RECESSION. 364 A. Brief SCHIP Background and Gains in Health Care Statistics for Children of Color. 364 B. Recession Politics Endangered SCHIP Gains. 368 C. The Keys to SCHIP Success: Focus on Children and Keep Immigrants in the Shadows. 374 II. THE DEATH OF THE DREAM. 377 A. A Brief History of the DREAM Act.... 2012 Yes
Daphne V. Taylor-García The Latina/o Academy of Arts and Sciences: a Political and Epistemic Challenge to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 48 California Western Law Review 481 (Spring 2012) Arizona House Bill (H.B.) 2281, the law aiming to remove Raza and Mexican-American Studies from Arizona high schools, supports the argument that the modern/colonial/capitalist system is never solely about labor and access to monetary resources. The system is also about the politics of knowledge production: specifically who has the right to... 2012 Yes
Kim McLane Wardlaw The Latino Immigration Experience 31 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 13 (2012) Although we are a country of immigrants and their descendants, the United States has a long history of targeting certain religious, ethnic, and racial groups using laws that appear facially neutral. We are once again experiencing a wave of discrimination against immigrants, and it is once again targeted toward Latinos, and predominantly Mexicans.... 2012 Yes
Guillermina Gina Núñez-Mchiri, University of Texas - El Paso The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation Leo R. Chavez (Stanford, Ca: Stanford University Press, 2008) 35 PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 145 (May, 2012) Leo R. Chavez' The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation offers a well-supported and vital counternarrative to the national anti-immigrant discourse portrayed in the media nationally and abroad. Chavez is a cultural anthropologist, prominently known for his classic ethnography Shadowed Lives, his scholarship on Latina... 2012 Yes
Stuart M. Israel The Law of the Lawyer 58 No. 4 Practical Lawyer 9 (August 1, 2012) Despite his own prolixity, Polonius observes in Hamlet that brevity is the soul of wit. Who can argue with that? Well, lawyers can. Sometimes 20 pages is just not enough to explain fully why there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Still, there is value in brevity. That's why... 2012  
Rachel Brill The Sleepy Lagoon Murder Case Race Discrimination and Mexican-american Rights by Mark A. Weitz University Press of Kansas (2010) 36-JUL Champion 58 (July, 2012) The Sleepy Lagoon Murder Case provides a detailed account of a lesser-known case exemplifying pervasive and persistent social and legal problems, lending insight to themes continuing to plague the American criminal justice system. On Sunday morning, August 2, 1942, 22-year-old Jose Diaz was found barely conscious by a dirt road. He had spent the... 2012  
Helena Alviar García What Does it Mean to Be a Latina Dean? Reflections from the South 48 California Western Law Review 439 (Spring 2012) A few years ago, I went to Mexico with a colleague to give a series of conferences on how to incorporate gender in the classroom. The conferences were the product of a gender and the law initiative at Los Andes Law School. In my local setting they had been received with a mixture of skepticism and mild support, and I was anxious about the reactions... 2012 Yes
Christopher David Ruiz Cameron You Can't Win If You Don't Play: the Surprising Absence of Latino Athletes from College Sports 2 Wake Forest Journal of Law and Policy 227 (2012) Practically everywhere in American cultural, political, and social life, Latinos own the moment. For eight years and counting, persons of Hispanic origin have comprised our largest and fastest-growing minority group. Since the last U.S. Census, their numbers have grown in every corner of the nation--for example, in North Carolina, the state's 18... 2012 Yes
Jesse Cross A Distaste for War at Walden Pond: Thoreau's the Bean-field, Theories of Personal Property, and the Mexican-american War 23 Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 389 (Summer 2011) Upon the tenth anniversary of their graduation from Harvard University, the members of the Harvard class of 1837 were sent a survey asking them to state, among other things, their current occupation. One member of this class, Henry David Thoreau, undoubtedly encountered this request while in a peculiar frame of mind. Thoreau responded to the survey... 2011  
Berta Esperanza Hernández-Truyol A Need for Culture Change: Glbt Latinas/os and Immigration 6 FIU Law Review 269 (Spring, 2011) In conversations about Latina/o immigration, such as the one that took place at LLEADS #2: The U.S. Immigration Crises: Enemies at Our Gates or Lady Liberty's Huddled Masses?, there is one issue that we tend not to address. There exists a Latina/o immigration cuento normativo (normative narrative) that obscures and denies an entire group of Latinas... 2011 Yes
Ed Finkel Aba Commission Focuses on Hispanics; Hearings to Cover Critical Issues 97-AUG ABA Journal 61 (August, 2011) Cesar L. Alvarez fled Cuba with his family in 1960, at age 13. Unlike many political refugees who expected to return within months of the communist takeover, the Alvarez family moved to North Miami and sent him to a school that was mostly Jewish, Irish and Italian and strongly encouraged him to assimilate. I don't think you could find anybody who... 2011 Yes
Kevin R. Johnson An Essay on the Nomination and Confirmation of the First Latina Justice on the U.s. Supreme Court: the Assimilation Demand at Work 30 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 97 (2011) Introduction. 98 I. Thurgood Marshall's Appointment to the Supreme Court: Confirmation as a Test of Assimilation. 107 A. The Judicial Activist Charge. 110 B. The Anti-White Presumption. 111 C. Affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 112 II. Sandra Day O'Connor's Appointment: Senate Confirmation as... 2011 Yes
Lupe S. Salinas Arizona's Desire to Eliminate Ethnic Studies Programs: a Time to Take the "Pill" and to Engage Latino Students in Critical Education about Their History 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 301 (Spring 2011) According to Paulo Freire, the famous Brazilian educator : Education either functions as an instrument that is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it, or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively... 2011 Yes
Steven W. Bender , Francisco Valdes At and Beyond Fifteen: Mapping Latcrit Theory, Community, and Praxis 1 University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review 177 (2011) Introduction. 178 I. Taking Stock: Latcrit at Fifteen. 181 A. Critical Roots: Latcrit Theory, Praxis, And Community, 1995-2010. 182 1. OutCrit Democracy in Theory and Practice: Values, Functions, Guideposts, and Postulates. 182 2. The LatCrit Record: Highlights and Shortfalls in Substance and Method. 191 a. Substantive Highlights: Lats Plus.... 2011 Yes
Stephanie Francis Ward Chasing the Dream 97-JAN ABA Journal 59 (January, 2011) WHEN IT COMES TO immigration issues, Bill Richardson likes the spot the ABA is in. The ABA is a mainstream, powerful institution, and our community wants to be mainstream--they want to be part of the American dream, said Richardson, a Latino political leader who ends a two-term run as governor of New Mexico this month. It's important that we... 2011  
Ramona Hernández Dominicans and the National Latino/a Academy of Arts and Sciences 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 277 (Spring 2011) What follows is a reflection regarding the establishment of a National Latino/a Academy of Arts and Sciences in U.S. academia. The need for the creation of the Latino/a Academy is linked to the growth in the number of people of Dominican descent in the United States and the need for this group to become bona fide members of U.S. society. It is... 2011 Yes
Nisé Guzmán Nekheba Entre Muchas Islas: an Afro-latina Legal Critic in the Paradoxical Age of Obama 2 William Mitchell Law Raza Journal 1 (Winter 2011) You traveled through a world that played with your head when you thought you had conquered it and which in reality hurled you from its orbit, leaving you neither here nor there. Navigator between two waters, shipwrecked between two worlds. Alejo Carpentier, The Harp and the Shadow Amidst the media's and popular culture's immediate declaration that... 2011 Yes
Gilda Arroyo, Samuel Yamron Hispanic Attorneys Committee Honors Böhm, Celebrates Heritage Month 13 No. 23 Lawyers Journal 7 (November 18, 2011) On October 12, 2011 the ACBA Hispanic Attorneys Committee celebrated Hispanic Heritage Month at the Duquesne Club in downtown Pittsburgh along with the annual awarding of the El Sol Award. This year's honoree was attorney Carlota M. Böhm, Esq. of Houston Harbaugh P.C., who soon will be joining the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of... 2011 Yes
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21