AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Terms
Uché Ewelukwa Ofodile Governor Hutchinson's Trade Mission to Cuba: Key Legal and Policy Developments That the Arkansas Business Community Should Be Aware of 2015 Arkansas Law Notes 1776 (October 26, 2015) On Sunday September 29, 2015, Arkansas Governor, Asa Hutchinson, and a delegation travelled to Cuba on a trade mission. By making an early visit to Cuba, Governor Hutchinson hopes to position Arkansas and Arkansas businesses to benefit once trade relations between the two countries are normalized. Governor Hutchinson is the first United States... 2015  
Madeline M. Gomez Intersections at the Border: Immigration Enforcement, Reproductive Oppression, and the Policing of Latina Bodies in the Rio Grande Valley 30 Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 84 (2015) A series of events in 2014 brought significant attention to the United States-Mexico border. Over the summer, reports of an influx of undocumented Central American immigrants began circulating. Though most coverage mentioned only children crossing the border, many of these young migrants traveled alongside their mothers. Reports of this influx... 2015 Yes
Paul Evan Greenwald Judge Frederick P. Aguirre: One of the 101 Most Influential Latinos in 2014 with Deep Roots in Orange County 57-MAR Orange County Lawyer 14 (March, 2015) Latino Leaders Magazine has selected Orange County Superior Court Judge Frederick P. Aguirre as one of the country's 101 Most Influential Latinos and presented him with an award at the Willard Intercontinental in Washington, D.C. recently, saying that he is one of those exemplary individuals who represent the pinnacle of those in our society who... 2015 Yes
Brian Rodriguez Latinos and the Criminal Justice System: Overcoming Racial Stigma from Trial to Incarceration 40 Thurgood Marshall Law Review Online 7 (2015) According to the National Council of La Raza NCLR, Latinos in the United States face discrimination and overrepresentation in every step of the criminal justice system, from arrest to incarceration. Tough on crime policies enacted since the 1970's for the purpose of reducing violent crimes and promoting efficiency in the criminal justice... 2015 Yes
Stephanie Flores-Koulish Vivir En Dos Mundos (Living in Both Worlds): the Realities of Living as a Latina Adoptee 9 Charleston Law Review 231 (Winter 2015) I. INTRODUCTION. 231 II. INTERNATIONAL/LATINA/O ADOPTION HISTORY. 234 III. CHALLENGES FOR LATIN ADOPTEES. 237 IV. CONCLUSION. 248 V. AFTERWORD. 248 2015 Yes
Waleska Suero We Don't Think of it as Sexual Harassment: the Intersection of Gender & Ethnicity on Latinas' Workplace Sexual Harassment Claims 33 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 129 (2015) [T]hat's right, we don't think of it as sexual harassment . In the workplace, sexual harassment is broadly defined as the making of unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. Workplace sexual harassment may arise as a single occurrence where sexual favors are demanded in... 2015 Yes
Stephanie M. Wildman , Lucy Gaines Wise Latina/os Reflect on Role Models, Acting Affirmatively, and Structures of Discrimination: in Honor of Richard Delgado 33 Law & Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 459 (Summer, 2015) Richard Delgado and I [Stephanie] have never lived in the same place or taught on the same faculty. I'm a provincial Californian, having spent my entire teaching career at Bay area law schools; Richard is an internationally recognized scholar who has taught at many different places. I am a White Jewish woman; he is a Latino man. In some ways it was... 2015 Yes
Rodolfo D. Saenz Another Sort of Wall-building: How Crimmigration Affects Latino Perceptions of Immigration Law 28 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 477 (Winter, 2014) The increased criminalization of immigration law has resulted in a number of problems that directly affect Latinos. For example, Latinos currently account for the vast majority of individuals detained in immigration detention and removed from the country. Furthermore, Latinos are the largest racial group sentenced to federal prison, and immigration... 2014 Yes
Pat K. Chew Anticipating the Wise Latina Judge 91 Denver University Law Review 853 (2014) Sonia Sotomayor's famous wise Latina quote provoked a conservative critique. The first part of the critique proposes that Judge Sotomayor's gender and racial background would affect her judicial decision making. The second part fears that her Latina background would result in bias, prejudice, and unfair judicial decisions. This Essay explores... 2014 Yes
Richard Delgado Delgado's Darkroom: Critical Reflections on Land Titles and Latino Legal Education 45 New Mexico Law Review 275 (Fall, 2014) Written in celebration of the life and achievements of Senator Dennis Chavez, this essay analyzes the intersection of two topics--civil rights and legal education--that lay close to the Senator's heart. A tireless crusader for justice who attended night law school at Georgetown in the 1920s and maintained a lifelong interest in legal education,... 2014 Yes
Gustavo A. Gelpí Jr. First Hispanic Woman Chief Judge 61-JUL Federal Lawyer 3 (July, 2014) On July 11, the Federal Bar Association will hold its First Women in the Law Conference in Washington, D.C. This event, I'm very proud to say, is the first of its kind in the nation. It is also a tribute to women pioneers in the law such as Arabella Mansfield, the first woman lawyer in the United States admitted to practice in Iowa in 1869, and... 2014 Yes
David Hinojosa, Karolina Walters How Adequacy Litigation Fails to Fulfill the Promise of Brown [But How it Can Get Us Closer 2014 Michigan State Law Review 575 (2014) C1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 576 I. School Desegregation. 582 A. Separate-but-Equal Schools. 582 B. The Tide Begins to Turn. 584 C. Brown v. Board Arrives. 587 D. Enter Brown II. 590 II. The Advent of School Finance Litigation. 596 A. Equity Cases. 596 B. The Shift to Adequacy Litigation. 601 1. Problems with Defining an Adequate... 2014  
Patrick Kirby Madden Illegal Reentry and Denial of Bail to Undocumented Defendants: Unjust Tools for Social Control of Undocumented Latino Immigrants 11 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 339 (Summer, 2014) When we want you, we'll call you; when we don't--git. - Ernesto Galarza Context matters. The more context one has, whether it is historical, structural, statistical, or constitutional, it helps one to better see the true purpose and effects of an action. Superficially, the criminal statute of Illegal Reentry seems like a basic rule to deter those... 2014 Yes
Emily Sanders Immigration and the Border: Politics and Policy in the New Latino Century. Edited by David L. Leal and José E. Limón. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame, 2013. Pp. Xi, 488. $46.00 (Paperback) 46 New York University Journal of International Law & Politics 1076 (Spring 2014) Immigration and the Border: Politics and Policy in the New Latino Century, edited by David L. Leal and José E. Limón, was born from a selection of papers presented at the inaugural Inter-University Program for Latino Research conference at the University of Texas at Austin in 2005. The editors subsequently compiled additional papers for this book,... 2014 Yes
Leticia M. Saucedo Intersectionality, Multidimensionality, Latino Immigrant Workers, and Title Vii 67 SMU Law Review 257 (Spring 2014) THE concepts of intersectionality and multidimensionality have become increasingly salient as we think about strategies for targeting national origin discrimination in the future. But what exactly do the concepts of intersectionality and multidimensionality mean in the immigrant workplace context, and how are such claims proved in the traditional... 2014 Yes
Alfredo Mirandé Light but Not White: a Race/plus Model of Latina/o Subordination 12 Seattle Journal for Social Justice 947 (Spring, 2014) This paper grew out of the LatCrit Conference held in Chicago, Illinois, on October 3rd through 5th in 2013, the theme of which was Resistance Rising: Theorizing and Building Cross-Sector Movements. The subject of the paper, however, extends well beyond the conference theme and falls within the first of five standing guideposts for LatCrit... 2014 Yes
Nora Dowd Eisenhower New Cfpb Resources in Spanish That Could Help Thousands of Older Hispanics Spot Financial Exploitation and Scams 36 No. 1 Bifocal 15 (September-October, 2014) Elder financial exploitation crosses all social, economic and cultural boundaries. Older Hispanics, like other older adults, increasingly are targets of financial abuse and scams by a broad spectrum of perpetrators. A 2012 study found that 17% of Hispanic seniors are victims of financial exploitation, and that limited English proficiency is a... 2014 Yes
Thomas A. Saenz One Advocate's Road Map to a Civil Rights Law for the next Half Century: Lessons from the Latino Civil Rights Experience 38 New York University Review of Law and Social Change 607 (2014) Twenty-five years ago this fall, I began my journey as a lawyer when I commenced law school. Even as a first-year student, I went to law school intending to do civil rights work after graduation. I knew that my desire and ambition was what was going to get me through the difficult times that I expected to experience in law school. The law students... 2014 Yes
Maritza I. Reyes Opening Borders: African Americans and Latinos Through the Lens of Immigration 17 Harvard Latino Law Review 1 (Spring 2014) African-American and Latino voter turnout during the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections hit record numbers. Polls show that the immigration debate influenced Latino voter turnout and preference. Presidential candidate Barack Obama's voiced support of comprehensive immigration reform strengthened his lead among Latino voters in 2008 and, once in... 2014 Yes
Orbelin Montes, Michelle R. Guyton, Pacific University Performance of Hispanic Inmates on the Spanish Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-fast) 38 Law and Human Behavior 428 (October, 2014) The few psychological assessment measures commercially available for the assessment of Spanish-speaking populations lack strong empirical foundation. This is concerning given the rising numbers of Spanish speakers entering the forensic and correctional systems for whom valid assessment is difficult without linguistically and culturally appropriate... 2014 Yes
John M. Ackerman Rethinking the International Anti-corruption Agenda: Civil Society, Human Rights and Democracy 29 American University International Law Review 293 (2014) I. INTRODUCTION. 293 II. CONSTRUCTING ACCOUNTABILITY. 294 III. CATEGORIES OF PRO-ACCOUNTABILITY REFORM. 307 IV. HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY. 316 V. CONCLUSIONS. 333 2014  
Jamie G. Longazel Rhetorical Barriers to Mobilizing for Immigrant Rights: White Innocence and Latina/o Abstraction 39 Law and Social Inquiry 580 (Summer, 2014) In the summer of 2006, Hazleton, Pennsylvania passed the Illegal Immigration Relief Act (IIRA). In this article, the politics that emerged in that law's wake are used as a case study to identify the rhetorical tools that justify and help achieve White dominance in local struggles over immigration in the United States. In tracing three successive... 2014 Yes
Ryan Kennedy Sharing Is Airing: Employee Concerted Activity on Social Media after Hispanics United 12 Duke Law & Technology Review 182 (November 8, 2014) Section 7 of the United States' National Labor Relations Act allows groups of American workers to engage in concerted activity for the purposes of collective bargaining or for other mutual aid or protection. This latter protection has been extended in cases such as Lafayette Park Hotel to workers outside the union context. Starting in 2005, the... 2014 Yes
Laura M. Goodall The "Otherized" Latino: Edward Said's Orientalism Theory and Reforming Suspect Class Analysis 16 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 835 (February, 2014) Several months before the 2012 presidential election, a Time magazine cover featured the faces of twenty Latinos and boldly proclaimed that Latinos would pick the next President. In big white lettering, the cover read, Yo Decido (I Decide). After President Barack Obama's reelection, discussion about the Latino vote remained at the center of a... 2014 Yes
Kevin R. Johnson , Joanna E. Cuevas Ingram Anatomy of a Modern-day Lynching: the Relationship Between Hate Crimes Against Latina/os and the Debate over Immigration Reform 91 North Carolina Law Review 1613 (June, 2013) Our contribution to the Race Trials symposium considers the protracted legal battles to bring justice to the perpetrators of the killing of a young Mexican immigrant in rural Pennsylvania. From that sensational case, we attempt to draw more general civil rights lessons. The Article specifically contends that hate crimes directed at Latina/os,... 2013 Yes
  Civil Procedure -- Class Actions -- Southern District of New York Certifies Class Action Against City Police for Suspicionless Stops and Frisks of Blacks and Latinos. -- Floyd V. City of New York, 82 Fed. R. Serv. 3d (West) 833 (S.d.n.y. 2012). 126 Harvard Law Review 826 (January, 2013) For a Court that had been besieged by calls to impeach its Chief Justice for his perceived leniency on crime, the 8-1 decision in Terry v. Ohio proved atypical. In his opinion, Chief Justice Warren assented to warrantless police stops and frisks based on no more than reasonable suspicion--an intrusion the former district attorney conceded must... 2013 Yes
Ramona Fernandez De-tenured: a Latina Endures More than Four Decades in the Educational Industrial Complex 12 Seattle Journal for Social Justice 421 (Fall/Winter, 2013) Our ancestors' journals are one long cry of pain. - Joanna Russ It is possible that North American academia has made little to no progress in racial and gender equality in the very halls that should lead us to a better world. The stories in Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia frighten anyone with the... 2013 Yes
Michael A. Olivas From a "Legal Organization of Militants" into a "Law Firm for the Latino Community" : Maldef and the Purposive Cases of Keyes, Rodriguez, and Plyler 90 Denver University Law Review 1151 (2013) Keyes was the first school desegregation case decided by the Supreme Court that did not originate in a Southern city. Geography was its quintessencenot merely the line drawing and school assignment formbut its political geography and demography variant. In Denver, as was the case in most Southwestern cities, the number of Mexican Americans was as... 2013 Yes
Freddy Rubio Hispanic Litigants and Jury Bias in Alabama 33 Alabama Association for Justice Journal 43 (Spring, 2013) The Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution guarantees [i]n all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to . a trial, by an impartial jury. Furthermore, the Seventh Amendment provides that in civil trials the right of trial by jury shall be preserved. Despite these statements in the Constitution, juries may be far... 2013 Yes
Chad G. Marzen, J.D. Hispanics in the Heartland: the Fremont, Nebraska Immigration Ordinance and the Future of Latino Civil Rights 29 Harvard Journal on Racial & Ethnic Justice 69 (Spring 2013) We want to be the voice of those who have no voice, in order to cry out against every assault of our human rights so that justice is done. -Archbishop Oscar Romero As individuals drive from outside of Nebraska to within its state's borders, a large sign greets motorists with a friendly slogan: Nebraska: The Good Life. With its traditions,... 2013 Yes
Mary Dolores Guerra Latina and Latino Judges: Changing the Complexion of the Bench 9 Florida A & M University Law Review 145 (Fall 2013) Although having a diverse bench is instrumental to a fair judicial system, the first Mexican American was not appointed to the federal bench until 1961. In that year, President John F. Kennedy appointed Reynaldo G. Garza, to the U.S. federal bench as a district court judge. Judge Garza hoped that by becoming an effective jurist he would quell any... 2013 Yes
Jocelyn A. Cortez, Esq. Legacy in the Making: the Las Vegas Latino Bar Association 21-SEP Nevada Lawyer 8 (September, 2013) The Las Vegas Latino Bar Association (LBA), in its inception and evolution, embodies the dynamism of the growing bar of Hispanic attorneys in southern Nevada. Since its foundation 14 years ago, the LBA has grown as a professional organization that not only supports its members in their trajectory of success, but also one that serves as a valuable... 2013 Yes
Edgar Flores Legal Service Awareness of the Latino Population in Southern Nevada 19 Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy 33 (Spring 2013) I. Introduction. 34 II. Methodology of the Survey. 35 A. Random Sampling. 35 B. Survey Questions. 37 C. Method Used to Test the Data. 39 III. Analysis. 39 IV. Consequences. 42 A. Why the Notario Público. 42 B. Nevada Rules for Notarios Públicos. 43 V. Solutions. 45 VI. Limitations. 47 VII. Conclusion. 48 Appendix: Data. 50 A. The Raw Data. 50 B.... 2013 Yes
Margaret E. Montoya Máscaras Y Trenzas: Reflexiones Un Proyecto De Identidad Y Análisis a Través De Veinte Adnos 36 Harvard Journal of Law & Gender 469 (Summer 2013) On the street at night I whistled popular tunes from the Beatles and Vivaldi's Four Seasons. The tension drained from people's bodies when they heard me. Brent Staples, quoted by Claude M. Steele From their inception, names--including first names, surnames, names of groups, and even story, book, and academic article titles--are embedded with... 2013  
Kathryn Duque Lenhart Multiculturalism and Feminism for Hispanic Immigrant Women Accused of Drug Crimes 2013 Brigham Young University Law Review 1613 (2013) A Laotian man kidnaps and rapes a woman in keeping with the Hmong custom of marriage-by-capture. An Iraqi father forces his minor daughters to marry adult Iraqi men. A Chinese immigrant kills his wife for infidelity. A Japanese woman kills her children in the honorable Japanese tradition of mother-child suicide. Cases such as these, which all took... 2013 Yes
Siria L. Gutierrez, Esq. , Leslie M. Nino, Esq. , Sylvia Tiscareño, Esq. Nevada's Hispanic Leaders 21-SEP Nevada Lawyer 16 (September, 2013) What does being Hispanic look like? This is an impossible question to answer. One might sit and ponder the notion, but reliance upon a surname, skin color or facial feature is not enough to reach an educated conclusion. It is undisputed that Nevada has its own rich Hispanic heritage to celebrate. The Battle Born State was originally part of Mexico,... 2013 Yes
  Program Seeks Lawyers to Help Hispanic and Women Farmers in Discrimination Claims Process 38-FEB Montana Lawyer 16 (February, 2013) The Farmers' Legal Action Group, Inc. (FLAG) and the National Agricultural Law Center is seeking lawyers to assist Hispanic and women farmers to complete and submit claims forms in a non-judicial process to resolve past claims of discrimination in USDA Farm Loan Programs. The USDA Hispanic and Women Farmers and Ranchers Claims Process (HWFRCP) is... 2013 Yes
Brent G. McCune, M.S., J.D. , Lisa J. Soto, J.D. , William G. Weaver, J.D., Ph.D. , Alejandra Hobbs, Lic. The Disappearing Mexican-american Law Student 19 Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy 1 (Spring 2013) The Republic's young men are the most virile and unwasted in the world, and they pant for enterprise worthy of their power. . . . [T]he American Republic is a part of the movement of a race--the most masterful race of history--and race movements are not to be stayed by the hand of man. They are mighty answers to divine questions. Albert Beveridge,... 2013  
Kevin R. Johnson The Keyes to the Nation's Educational Future: the Latina/o Struggle for Educational Equity 90 Denver University Law Review 1231 (2013) This Essay outlines emerging Latina/o educational equity issues in the new millennium. Although Latina/os face challenges similar to those of other minority groups, those challenges differ in important respects from those of other groups because of the complexities of the longstanding and ongoing migration of Latina/os to the United States.... 2013 Yes
Elky Almaraz The Underrepresentation of Hispanic Women in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields: What Can Be Done to "Curie" the Problem? 16 Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice 153 (2013) I. Introduction. 154 II. The Path That has Led to Today's Underrepresentation of Minority Women in the Sciences. 156 A. The Uphill Battle: The Legal History of Hispanics and Women in Education and Employment. 156 B. Hispanic Women in STEM Fields: Lack of Support for the Doubly Discriminated. 160 III. Analyzing the Problem: Potential Causes,... 2013 Yes
Sally J. Kenney Wise Latinas, Strategic Minnesotans, and the Feminist Standpoint: the Backlash Against Women Judges 36 Thomas Jefferson Law Review 43 (Fall, 2013) C1-3Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION. 43 II. BACKLASH. 44 A. Backlash Against Women Judges. 48 B. The Backlash Against Then-Judge Sotomayor. 52 C. Sotomayor's Response. 55 III. DO WOMEN JUDGE DIFFERENTLY THAN MEN?. 57 IV. ALL ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO GENDER BIAS. 64 V. WISE LATINAS: A CLOSER LOOK. 67 A. The Actual Speech. 68 B. Hall v. Hall. 71 VI. WISE... 2013 Yes
María Pabón López An Essay Examining the Murder of Luis Ramírez and the Emergence of Hate Crimes Against Latino Immigrants in the United States 44 Arizona State Law Journal 155 (Spring 2012) [N]ot unlike acts of terrorism, hate crimes are about messages. Offenders use a criminal event to put the members of an entire group on notice, by example, that they are not welcome in a community, in a workplace, on a college campus, or at school. By contrast, if a window is broken in a simple act of vandalism, the offenders typically have no... 2012 Yes
Kasi Chadwick An Overview of the Implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for Low-income Hispanics in Texas: a Case for Cross-border Health Care Models 13 Houston Journal of Health Law & Policy 103 (Fall 2012) Health reform, especially health reform in Texas, may not result in a system that allows access for all. This paper outlines how, in Texas, those remaining uninsured even after the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will likely be low-income Hispanics. A solution is proposed in cross-border health models that utilize... 2012 Yes
George A. Martínez Arizona, Immigration, and Latinos: the Epistemology of Whiteness, the Geography of Race, Interest Convergence, and the View from the Perspective of Critical Theory 44 Arizona State Law Journal 175 (Spring 2012) I. Introduction. 176 II. A Critical Perspective on Arizona and the New Immigration Law and Other Laws Impacting Latinos. 179 A. The Epistemology of Whiteness and the Creation of a White Geography or Space in Arizona. 180 B. The Outlawing of Ethnic Studies in Arizona and the Segregation of Knowledge as a Corollary to the Establishment of a White... 2012 Yes
Steven W. Bender , Francisco Valdes At and Beyond Fifteen--mapping Latcrit Theory, Community, and Praxis 22 Berkeley La Raza Law Journal 301 (2012) I. Introduction. 302 II. Taking Stock: LatCrit at Fifteen. 304 A. Critical Roots: LatCrit Theory, Praxis, and Community, 1995-2010. 304 1. OutCrit Democracy in Theory and Practice: Values, Functions, Guideposts, and Postulates. 305 2. The LatCrit Record: Highlights and Shortfalls in Substance and Method . 311 a. Substantive Highlights: Lats... 2012 Yes
Olympia Duhart Cluster Introduction - Education and Pedagogy - on Identity and Instruction 48 California Western Law Review 453 (Spring 2012) The instructor said, Go home and write a page tonight. And let that page come out of you-- Then, it will be true. --Langston Hughes The narrator in Langston Hughes's poem about a colored twenty-year-old responding to an assignment from a white, older instructor challenges us to think about the ways in which identity can inform instruction. Who... 2012  
Margaret Montoya Cluster Introduction - Legal Education, Social Justice, and the Law School Dean: Latinas at the Center 48 California Western Law Review 417 (Spring 2012) The opening of LatCrit XVI in San Diego, CA, on October 9, 2011, coincided with the events that are identified as the start of the global expression of the Occupy Movement. The Occupy Movement began to gain media attention on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park in New York City. By October 9, protests had taken place or were ongoing in eighty-two... 2012 Yes
Caroline Joan (“Kay”) S. Picart Colloquium Proceedings: Critical Pedagogy, Race/gender & Intellectual Property 48 California Western Law Review 493 (Spring 2012) The vantage point from which I engage LatCrit XVI's emphases on Global Justice: Theories, Histories, Futures is rooted personally, as a body and entity marked by multiple hybridities, but also as a trained philosopher concerned with metaphysical and ethical questions of truth in relation to the generation of narratives. In other words, I engage... 2012  
Steven W. Bender En Paz Descanse: Remembering Keith Aoki's Contributions Toward Latina/o Equality 90 Oregon Law Review 1265 (2012) In memorializing and celebrating Keith's treasure trove of scholarly contributions, we organized the Oregon Symposium around the three subjects of intellectual property, Asian American jurisprudence, and critical geography/local government. Still, it was impossible to capture the breadth and depth of Keith's scholarly work in three panels, in a... 2012 Yes
Ernesto Hernández-López Foreword: Global Justice, History, and Law: Between Fela's Teachers Teaching "Nonsense" and Bob Marley's "Small Axe" for a Big Tree 42 California Western International Law Journal 265 (Spring 2012) Within sight of the political border with Mexico while engulfed by the view of the Pacific Ocean to its west, LatCrit XVI met on Harbor Island in San Diego, California from October 7 to 9, 2011. This dual imagery of immediate exclusion created by an international boundary and a vast ocean of opportunity acted as the thematic backdrop for this... 2012  
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