AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey Terms
Richard Delgado Four Reservations on Civil Rights Reasoning by Analogy: the Case of Latinos and Other Nonblack Groups 112 Columbia Law Review 1883 (November, 2012) The protection of civil rights in the United States encompasses remedies for at least five separate groups. Native Americans have suffered extermination, removal, denial of sovereignty, and destruction of culture; Latinos, conquest and the indignities of a racially discriminatory immigration system. Asian Americans suffered exclusion, wartime... 2012 Yes
Shari S. Lindsey, J.D. Global-city Status at the Expense of Black and Latino Youth: How Chicago's Tif Districts Disparately Impact Cps Students 6 DePaul Journal for Social Justice 23 (Fall, 2012) On March 19, 2011, over 250 members of the Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) and other education advocates gathered together at Jenner Elementary, one of the last neighborhood schools in Chicago's Cabrini Green area. The group was prepared to march in peaceful protest to Lincoln Park's Clybourn Corridor, where they planned to rally outside the upscale... 2012 Yes
Leah R. Sauter Hispanic in Everything but its Voting Patterns: Redistricting in Texas and Competing Definitions of Minority Representation 46 Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 251 (Winter 2012) Based on unprecedented population growth revealed by the 2010 census, Texas picked up four additional congressional districts. Although minorities made up 89% of the population growth between 2000 and 2010, Texas lawmakers added only one Hispanic opportunity district to the map. Voting-rights groups alleged that this violated § 2 of the Voting... 2012 Yes
Leticia M. Diaz Hispanic Leaders for the Larger Community: the Surge in the Hispanic Population Creates Opportunities for Increased Diversity and Inclusiveness 48 California Western Law Review 425 (Spring 2012) As the first Hispanic dean of Barry University Dwayne O. Andreas School of Law and the first female Cuban American dean of any ABA accredited law school in the country, I face the non-unique challenge of attracting minority students and maintaining diversity in the law school community. Fortunately, the law school's location in Central Florida has... 2012 Yes
Angela L. Dixon Latina Voices: Smart Talk 50-DEC Houston Lawyer 40 (November/December, 2012) When Sofia Adrogué was approached four years ago by Minerva Perez, an award-winning broadcast journalist and long time television anchor, with the idea of co-hosting and co-producing a show, she did not know what was in store for her and the impact it would make on the community. Minerva Pérez was the mistress of ceremonies at a Greater Houston... 2012 Yes
Camilo M. Ortiz Latinos Nowhere in Sight: Erased by Racism, Nativism, the Black-white Binary, and Authoritarianism 13 Rutgers Race & the Law Review 29 (2012) In May 2010, two weeks after the Arizona state legislature passed Senate Bill 1070 (SB 1070), Juan Varela was fatally shot in the neck by his next door neighbor, Gary Kelley. Prior to the killing, Kelley had repeatedly said to Varela, Hurry up and go back to Mexico, or you're gonna die[!] It is uncertain what specific events led Kelley to shoot... 2012 Yes
Jessica A. Solyom , Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy Memento Mori : Policing the Minds and Bodies of Indigenous Latinas/os in Arizona 42 California Western International Law Journal 473 (Spring 2012) The state of Arizona is home to a large number of American Indian communities. The majority of the state, and its current boundaries, arose as a result of the Mexican American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Today, Arizona houses the largest number of American Indian tribal reservations in the United States (currently twenty-two),... 2012 Yes
SpearIt Priorities of Pedagogy: Classroom Justice in the Law School Setting 48 California Western Law Review 467 (Spring 2012) Teachers' expectations cannot be divorced from their students' expectations in turn. In the worst case scenarios, teaching results in disappointment and leaves people on both sides of the podium feeling unfulfilled. Students feel like they are left holding a Costco-sized-receipt-cum-diploma for a mediocre learning experience. In turn, this... 2012  
M. Kristen Hefner, University of Delaware Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys. By Victor M. Rios. New York: New York University Press, 2011. 218 Pp. $20.00 Paper 46 Law and Society Review 942 (December, 2012) Punitive strategies such as tough on crime and zero tolerance policies that have traditionally been restricted to the field of criminal justice are currently being implemented in mainstream institutions that serve youthful populations, such as schools and civic centers. While examinations of punitive discourses and practices, poverty, and youth... 2012 Yes
María Pabón López Reflections about Legal Education and Justice from the Perspective of a Latina Law School Dean 48 California Western Law Review 431 (Spring 2012) I am deeply appreciative of this opportunity to share my thoughts about these two critical topics--the training of lawyers in our times, and equality and social justice in the United States and globally. While I am deeply aware of the harsh challenges facing legal education and justice in the world, I am also optimistic and regard such challenges... 2012 Yes
Jennifer L. Rosato Reflections of a Reluctant Pioneer 48 California Western Law Review 445 (Spring 2012) I have mixed feelings about being one of four Latina Deans in the United States. I feel quite honored and privileged to be part of such a distinguished group of Latinas, but at the same time continue to be surprised that our group is still so small--and that there were only two of us just a year ago. In the announcement for the Deans' Roundtable at... 2012  
Mariela Olivares The Impact of Recessionary Politics on Latino-american and Immigrant Families: Schip Success and Dream Act Failure 55 Howard Law Journal 359 (Winter 2012) INTRODUCTION. 359 I. SCHIP SURVIVES THE RECESSION. 364 A. Brief SCHIP Background and Gains in Health Care Statistics for Children of Color. 364 B. Recession Politics Endangered SCHIP Gains. 368 C. The Keys to SCHIP Success: Focus on Children and Keep Immigrants in the Shadows. 374 II. THE DEATH OF THE DREAM. 377 A. A Brief History of the DREAM Act.... 2012 Yes
Daphne V. Taylor-García The Latina/o Academy of Arts and Sciences: a Political and Epistemic Challenge to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 48 California Western Law Review 481 (Spring 2012) Arizona House Bill (H.B.) 2281, the law aiming to remove Raza and Mexican-American Studies from Arizona high schools, supports the argument that the modern/colonial/capitalist system is never solely about labor and access to monetary resources. The system is also about the politics of knowledge production: specifically who has the right to... 2012 Yes
Kim McLane Wardlaw The Latino Immigration Experience 31 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 13 (2012) Although we are a country of immigrants and their descendants, the United States has a long history of targeting certain religious, ethnic, and racial groups using laws that appear facially neutral. We are once again experiencing a wave of discrimination against immigrants, and it is once again targeted toward Latinos, and predominantly Mexicans.... 2012 Yes
Guillermina Gina Núñez-Mchiri, University of Texas - El Paso The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation Leo R. Chavez (Stanford, Ca: Stanford University Press, 2008) 35 PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 145 (May, 2012) Leo R. Chavez' The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation offers a well-supported and vital counternarrative to the national anti-immigrant discourse portrayed in the media nationally and abroad. Chavez is a cultural anthropologist, prominently known for his classic ethnography Shadowed Lives, his scholarship on Latina... 2012 Yes
Stuart M. Israel The Law of the Lawyer 58 No. 4 Practical Lawyer 9 (August 1, 2012) Despite his own prolixity, Polonius observes in Hamlet that brevity is the soul of wit. Who can argue with that? Well, lawyers can. Sometimes 20 pages is just not enough to explain fully why there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Still, there is value in brevity. That's why... 2012  
Rachel Brill The Sleepy Lagoon Murder Case Race Discrimination and Mexican-american Rights by Mark A. Weitz University Press of Kansas (2010) 36-JUL Champion 58 (July, 2012) The Sleepy Lagoon Murder Case provides a detailed account of a lesser-known case exemplifying pervasive and persistent social and legal problems, lending insight to themes continuing to plague the American criminal justice system. On Sunday morning, August 2, 1942, 22-year-old Jose Diaz was found barely conscious by a dirt road. He had spent the... 2012  
Helena Alviar García What Does it Mean to Be a Latina Dean? Reflections from the South 48 California Western Law Review 439 (Spring 2012) A few years ago, I went to Mexico with a colleague to give a series of conferences on how to incorporate gender in the classroom. The conferences were the product of a gender and the law initiative at Los Andes Law School. In my local setting they had been received with a mixture of skepticism and mild support, and I was anxious about the reactions... 2012 Yes
Christopher David Ruiz Cameron You Can't Win If You Don't Play: the Surprising Absence of Latino Athletes from College Sports 2 Wake Forest Journal of Law and Policy 227 (2012) Practically everywhere in American cultural, political, and social life, Latinos own the moment. For eight years and counting, persons of Hispanic origin have comprised our largest and fastest-growing minority group. Since the last U.S. Census, their numbers have grown in every corner of the nation--for example, in North Carolina, the state's 18... 2012 Yes
Jesse Cross A Distaste for War at Walden Pond: Thoreau's the Bean-field, Theories of Personal Property, and the Mexican-american War 23 Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 389 (Summer 2011) Upon the tenth anniversary of their graduation from Harvard University, the members of the Harvard class of 1837 were sent a survey asking them to state, among other things, their current occupation. One member of this class, Henry David Thoreau, undoubtedly encountered this request while in a peculiar frame of mind. Thoreau responded to the survey... 2011  
Berta Esperanza Hernández-Truyol A Need for Culture Change: Glbt Latinas/os and Immigration 6 FIU Law Review 269 (Spring, 2011) In conversations about Latina/o immigration, such as the one that took place at LLEADS #2: The U.S. Immigration Crises: Enemies at Our Gates or Lady Liberty's Huddled Masses?, there is one issue that we tend not to address. There exists a Latina/o immigration cuento normativo (normative narrative) that obscures and denies an entire group of Latinas... 2011 Yes
Ed Finkel Aba Commission Focuses on Hispanics; Hearings to Cover Critical Issues 97-AUG ABA Journal 61 (August, 2011) Cesar L. Alvarez fled Cuba with his family in 1960, at age 13. Unlike many political refugees who expected to return within months of the communist takeover, the Alvarez family moved to North Miami and sent him to a school that was mostly Jewish, Irish and Italian and strongly encouraged him to assimilate. I don't think you could find anybody who... 2011 Yes
Kevin R. Johnson An Essay on the Nomination and Confirmation of the First Latina Justice on the U.s. Supreme Court: the Assimilation Demand at Work 30 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 97 (2011) Introduction. 98 I. Thurgood Marshall's Appointment to the Supreme Court: Confirmation as a Test of Assimilation. 107 A. The Judicial Activist Charge. 110 B. The Anti-White Presumption. 111 C. Affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 112 II. Sandra Day O'Connor's Appointment: Senate Confirmation as... 2011 Yes
Lupe S. Salinas Arizona's Desire to Eliminate Ethnic Studies Programs: a Time to Take the "Pill" and to Engage Latino Students in Critical Education about Their History 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 301 (Spring 2011) According to Paulo Freire, the famous Brazilian educator : Education either functions as an instrument that is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it, or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively... 2011 Yes
Steven W. Bender , Francisco Valdes At and Beyond Fifteen: Mapping Latcrit Theory, Community, and Praxis 1 University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review 177 (2011) Introduction. 178 I. Taking Stock: Latcrit at Fifteen. 181 A. Critical Roots: Latcrit Theory, Praxis, And Community, 1995-2010. 182 1. OutCrit Democracy in Theory and Practice: Values, Functions, Guideposts, and Postulates. 182 2. The LatCrit Record: Highlights and Shortfalls in Substance and Method. 191 a. Substantive Highlights: Lats Plus.... 2011 Yes
Stephanie Francis Ward Chasing the Dream 97-JAN ABA Journal 59 (January, 2011) WHEN IT COMES TO immigration issues, Bill Richardson likes the spot the ABA is in. The ABA is a mainstream, powerful institution, and our community wants to be mainstream--they want to be part of the American dream, said Richardson, a Latino political leader who ends a two-term run as governor of New Mexico this month. It's important that we... 2011  
Ramona Hernández Dominicans and the National Latino/a Academy of Arts and Sciences 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 277 (Spring 2011) What follows is a reflection regarding the establishment of a National Latino/a Academy of Arts and Sciences in U.S. academia. The need for the creation of the Latino/a Academy is linked to the growth in the number of people of Dominican descent in the United States and the need for this group to become bona fide members of U.S. society. It is... 2011 Yes
Nisé Guzmán Nekheba Entre Muchas Islas: an Afro-latina Legal Critic in the Paradoxical Age of Obama 2 William Mitchell Law Raza Journal 1 (Winter 2011) You traveled through a world that played with your head when you thought you had conquered it and which in reality hurled you from its orbit, leaving you neither here nor there. Navigator between two waters, shipwrecked between two worlds. Alejo Carpentier, The Harp and the Shadow Amidst the media's and popular culture's immediate declaration that... 2011 Yes
Gilda Arroyo, Samuel Yamron Hispanic Attorneys Committee Honors Böhm, Celebrates Heritage Month 13 No. 23 Lawyers Journal 7 (November 18, 2011) On October 12, 2011 the ACBA Hispanic Attorneys Committee celebrated Hispanic Heritage Month at the Duquesne Club in downtown Pittsburgh along with the annual awarding of the El Sol Award. This year's honoree was attorney Carlota M. Böhm, Esq. of Houston Harbaugh P.C., who soon will be joining the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of... 2011 Yes
José Luis Calva La Producción De Alimentos En México En El Marco De Las Políticas Neoliberales Y Del Tlcan 43 University of Miami Inter-American Law Review 45 (Fall 2011) La economía mexicana cumplió veintiocho años de haber sido convertida en un enorme laboratorio de experimentación neoliberal, id est de perseverante aplicación del decálogo de reformas estructurales y disciplinas macroeconómicas recomendadas por los organismos financieros internacionales al mundo en desarrollo, que John Williamson sintetizó en... 2011  
Steven W. Bender , Francisco Valdes Latcrit Xv Symposium Afterword--at and Beyond Fifteen: Mapping Latcrit Theory, Community, and Praxis 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 397 (Spring 2011) Introduction. 398 I. Taking Stock: LatCrit at Fifteen. 400 A. Critical Roots: LatCrit Theory, Praxis, and Community, 1995-2010. 401 1. OutCrit Democracy in Theory and Practice: Values, Functions, Guideposts, and Postulates. 401 2. The LatCrit Record: Highlights and Shortfalls in Substance and Method . 409 a. Substantive Highlights: Lats Plus... 2011 Yes
Andrea Christina Nill Latinos and S.b. 1070: Demonization, Dehumanization, and Disenfranchisement 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 35 (Spring 2011) Last year, the Arizona state legislature approved the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, or Arizona Senate Bill 1070 (S.B. 1070) as it is popularly known. The provisions of the Bill are explicitly intended to work together to discourage and deter the unlawful entry and presence of aliens. S.B. 1070 contains a series of... 2011 Yes
Leisy J. Abrego Legal Consciousness of Undocumented Latinos: Fear and Stigma as Barriers to Claims-making for First- and 1.5-generation Immigrants 45 Law and Society Review 337 (June, 2011) This article examines the legal consciousness and incorporation experiences of undocumented immigrants in the United States. Although this population may be disaggregated along several axes, one central distinction among them is their age at migration. Those who migrated as adults live out their daily lives in different social contexts than those... 2011 Yes
Yolanda Vázquez Perpetuating the Marginalization of Latinos: a Collateral Consequence of the Incorporation of Immigration Law into the Criminal Justice System 54 Howard Law Journal 639 (Spring 2011) ABSTRACT. 640 INTRODUCTION. 641 I. HISTORY OF THE EXCLUSION OF LATINOS IN THE UNITED STATES. 645 A. Denial of the Full Benefits of Citizenship. 646 B. Denial of Entry into the United States as a Legal Immigrant. 648 C. Lynching. 649 D. The Bisbee Deportation of 1917. 650 E. Mexican Repatriation. 651 F. Operation Wetback. 652 G. Chandler Roundup.... 2011 Yes
Norma E. Loza Perrymandering: a New Redistricting Plan in Texas Impacts the Latino Vote 17 Public Interest Law Reporter 29 (Fall 2011) Much like the enfranchisement struggles of African-Americans in the South during the Jim Crow era, Latinos today are the new targets of electoral shenanigans. With a growing Hispanic population, the Hispanic vote is increasingly becoming a powerful voting bloc for some politicians and a danger for others. With that in mind and a new election... 2011 Yes
Roberto L. Corrada Politics of Knowledge-production: Synecdochic Perils & Opportunities for Latina/os in the Academy 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 257 (Spring 2011) We must be ever vigilant of the human urge to come to general conclusions from individual or specific events. In the area of race, this same theme travels through the idea of non-essentialism, an important part of any critical race project. The urge is powerful, though, as Professor Gerald Torres reminds us in his article Synecdoche. After the... 2011 Yes
James W. Paulsen 'Preserved from the Wreck': Lingering Traces of Hispanic Law in Texas 49-OCT Houston Lawyer 10 (September/October, 2011) In the diverse mix of cultures that makes Texas unique, the state's Spanish and Mexican heritage features prominently, from Tex-Mex cuisine J and barbeque to Cinco de Mayo, fiesta, and rodeo. Cultural influences on Texas law are more difficult to pin down. Books could be written (and one short book actually has been written ) on the subject. This... 2011 Yes
Lupe S. Salinas , Fernando Colon-Navarro Racial Profiling as a Means of Thwarting the Alleged Latino Security Threat 37 Thurgood Marshall Law Review 5 (Fall, 2011) Not all Latinos are undocumented persons, and not all undocumented persons are Latinos. Throughout the history of Latino presence and immigration to the United States, the open welcome extended by many Americans eventually developed into rejection and an effort to terminate the invitation. Persons of Mexican ethnicities were initially welcomed... 2011 Yes
Javier Perez Reasonably Suspicious of Being Mojado: the Legal Derogation of Latinos in Immigration Enforcement 17 Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy 99 (Spring, 2011) C1-3Summary I. Introduction 100 II. The Legal Framework & Doctrinal Prejudice 104 A. [Un]Reasonableness of an Exception to the Fourth Amendment 104 B. Equal Protection as a Guardian for Fairness 109 C. A Comment on Non-Federal Enforcement 113 III. The Cultural Force of Immigration Status 114 IV. CONCLUSION 122 2011 Yes
Kevin Brown Should Black Immigrants Be Favored over Black Hispanics and Black Multiracials in the Admissions Processes of Selective Higher Education Programs? 54 Howard Law Journal 255 (Winter 2011) INTRODUCTION. 256 I. EFFORTS TO STANDARDIZE THE COLLECTION OF DATA ON RACE AND ETHNICITY IN THE 1970s: ADOPTION OF DIRECTIVE 15. 266 II. ADOPTION OF THE 1997 REVISED STANDARDS. 272 A. Need to Revise Directive 15. 272 B. 1997 Revised Standards. 274 1. Hispanic/Latino Ethnicity Question and the Two Question Format. 274 2. How to Collect Data on... 2011 Yes
Leo P. Martinez, Jennifer M. Martinez The Internal Revenue Code and Latino Realities: a Critical Perspective 22 University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy 377 (December, 2011) Introduction. 378 I. A Tax and Tax Policy Primer. 380 A. The Federal Income Tax System. 380 B. A Tax Policy Primer. 382 1. Horizontal and Vertical Equity. 383 2. Benefit Theory. 384 3. A Critique of Tax Policy Critiques. 386 II. The Code and the Poor. 388 III. Latino Realities. 391 A. The Deduction for Personal Residence Interest. 392 B. Latinos... 2011 Yes
Nelson Maldonado-Torres The Latina/o Academy of Arts and Sciences: Decolonizing Knowledge and Society in the Context of Neo-apartheid 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 283 (Spring 2011) Inspired by the massive protests in 2006 against the criminalization of illegal immigration in H.R. 4437, and after months of communication and organizing, dozens of Latina/o scholars met at the University of California, Berkeley, on May 2-3 2008, in a first round of discussions exploring the possibility of establishing a Latina/o Academy of Arts... 2011 Yes
María Pabón López, Diomedes J. Tsitouras, Pierce C. Azuma The Prospects and Challenges of Educational Reform for Latino Undocumented Children: an Essay Examining Alabama's H.b. 56 and Other State Immigration Measures 6 FIU Law Review 231 (Spring, 2011) In May 2010, First Lady Michelle Obama was visiting a suburban Washington, D.C. elementary school when a second grader said to her, [m]y mom says that Barack Obama is taking everybody away that doesn't have papers. Mrs. Obama responded, that's something that we have to work on, right? To make sure that people can be here with the right kind of... 2011 Yes
Maria Chávez The Rise of the Latino Lawyer 97-OCT ABA Journal 34 (October, 2011) Editor's note: This article, though anecdotal in narrative, is based on an in-depth study of Latino professionals in Washington state involving interviews and detailed surveys of personal histories from a scientific sample of 102 Latino lawyers. Washington's Latino population closely resembles that of the greater U.S., and includes immigrant... 2011 Yes
Kristina M. Campbell The Road to S.b. 1070: How Arizona Became Ground Zero for the Immigrants' Rights Movement and the Continuing Struggle for Latino Civil Rights in America 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 1 (Spring 2011) When Arizona Governor Janice K. Brewer signed into law the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act-better known as S.B. 1070 -in April 2010, the world was taken aback not only by the State of Arizona's brazen attempt to regulate immigration at the state level, but also by the means it authorized for doing so. By giving state and... 2011 Yes
Joel Marrero-Otero What Does a Wise Latina Look Like? An Intersectional Analysis of Sonia Sotomayor's Confirmation to the U.s. Supreme Court 30 Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review 177 (2011) On May 26, 2009, President Barack Obama announced Sonia Sotomayor's nomination to replace Justice David Souter of the U.S. Supreme Court. In his remarks, President Obama noted that Sotomayor would bring more varied experience on the bench than anyone currently serving on the United States Supreme Court had when they were appointed. Sotomayor's... 2011 Yes
Laura A. Hernandez When the Wise Latina Judge Meets a Living Constitution--why it Is a Matter of Perspective 17 Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy 53 (Spring, 2011) C1-3Summary I. INTRODUCTION 55 II. THE SUPREME COURT'S HISTORICAL USE OF PERCEPTION AND JUDICIAL INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION AS REFLECTED IN THE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION CASES 57 A. The Evolution of Impermissible Racial Discrimination and the Perspective that Shaped It Beginning with Dred Scott 57 1. The Dred Scott Analysis 58 2. Chief Justice... 2011 Yes
Paula M. L. Moya Why Latina/o? Why Academy? 14 Harvard Latino Law Review 295 (Spring 2011) In considering the formation of The Latina/o Academy of Arts and Sciences, two basic questions must be confronted. The first involves the rationale for organizing around a racial or ethnic category. The second has to do with the necessity of organizing ourselves as university-based researchers and teachers who are concerned with the welfare of... 2011 Yes
Robert F. Castro Xenomorph!! 46 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 1 (2011) The national debate over illegal immigration has been dramatically altered since 9/11. In his book The Latino Threat, Leo R. Chavez argues that Latina/o immigrants--including those U.S. populations that physically resemble them-- have been socially constructed as grave risks to the United States. Arizona Senate Bill 1070 (hereinafter S.B. 1070)... 2011  
Brenda Valle You Don't Have to Reinvent the Wheel: a Comparison of Wage and Hour Laws, Their Effects on the Latino Family, and What We Can Learn from Them 8 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 137 (Summer, 2011) Latinos have become the fastest growing minority population in the United States. As a result, the United States has seen a surfacing of issues that have had a unique impact on the Latino population. One such issue that has specifically affected Latinos is the weakness in wage and hour laws, both at the federal and state level. Latinos as a group... 2011 Yes
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