AuthorTitleCitationSummaryYearKey terms In Title or Summary
Kevin R. Johnson Roll over Beethoven : "A Critical Examination of Recent Writing about Race" 82 Texas Law Review 717 (February, 2004) Richard Delgado, an influential civil rights scholar, has written foundational work on hate speech, storytelling in legal scholarship, and countless other areas of civil rights law. One of the founders of Critical Race Theory, Delgado's award-winning series of narratives-- the Rodrigo Chronicles--have been published in some of the most prestigious...; Search Snippett: ...of Latina/os post-September 11); Bill Ong Hing, Vigilante Racism: The De-Americanization of Immigrant America, 7 Mich. J. Race & L. 441, 444 (2002) (describing the ostracism of Muslims, Middle Easterners, and South Asians in the United States in the wake of September 11 as a de-Americanization... 2004  
George Anastaplo September Eleventh, the Abc's of a Citizen's Responses: Explorations 29 Oklahoma City University Law Review 165 (Spring, 2004) C1-3Table of Contents Introduction July 4, 2004 167 A. Three Memoranda by George Anastaplo for the Federal Bureau of Investigation September, 2001 174 B. Talks for Students by George Anastaplo B-1. A Second Pearl Harbor? Let's Be Serious September 12, 2001 175 B-2. One Month Later: September 11th Further Considered October 10, 2001 182 B-3. Islam... 2004  
Randolph B. Persaud Shades of American Hegemony: the Primitive, the Enlightened, and the Benevolent 19 Connecticut Journal of International Law 263 (Spring, 2004) In this paper I argue that hegemony is practiced in three different ways, and accordingly, a more nuanced explanation than what currently exists is warranted. The three forms of hegemony are not mutually exclusive, but they are distinctive enough to warrant different conceptualizations. Neoconservative thinking influences the first kind, which I...; Search Snippett: ...a hegemonized one) of we are all one. In this America there are no social classes or class conflict; no racial and other identity antagonisms; no difference between Protestants and Catholics; no doubts about the patriotism of others, such as Muslim Americans; no inner cities, and perhaps most tellingly, no disputes... 2004  
Thomas M. McDonnell Targeting the Foreign Born by Race and Nationality: Counter-productive in the "War on Terrorism"? 16 Pace International Law Review 19 (Spring 2004) I. Introduction. 20 II. War on Terrorism, Dangerously Overbroad Rhetoric. 23 III. Ethnic and Racial Profiling In the Wake of September 11. 24 A. Mass Arrests and Preventive Detention of Arab and Muslim Immigrants. 26 B. Conducting Secret (Closed) Immigration Hearings for the Arab and Muslim Immigrants Who Were Arrested and Detained. 28 1.... 2004  
Jonathan K. Stubbs The Bottom Rung of America's Race Ladder: after the September 11 Catastrophe Are American Muslims Becoming America's New N . . . . S? 19 Journal of Law and Religion 115 (2003-2004) On September 11, 2001, did American Muslims become America's newest race? This essay offers preliminary observations regarding that question. Using the word race in America is like waving a red flag before a bull. You are likely to get a spirited response. In the context of a national calamity like the September 11, 2001 tragedy, discussing race... 2004 Yes
Devon W. Carbado , Donald Weise The Civil Rights Identity of Bayard Rustin 82 Texas Law Review 1133 (April, 2004) Bayard Rustin was the consummate civil rights strategist and humanitarian. Indeed, he shaped the course of social protest for some thirty years. First as political adviser to Martin Luther King, Jr. and later as leader of the 1963 March on Washington, Rustin influenced the black protest agenda in ways that few activists had before him or would even...; Search Snippett: ...X's life and ascent to leadership in the Nation of Islam); Bayard Rustin Meets Malcolm X, Freedom Rev., Jan.-Feb. 1993... 2004  
Peter Margulies The Clear and Present Internet: Terrorism, Cyberspace, and the First Amendment 2004 UCLA Journal of Law and Technology 4 (2004) Many terrorist groups share a common goal with mainstream organizations and institutions: the search for greater efficiency through the Internet. This pursuit of on-line efficiency has spawned a First Amendment dilemma. The Internet's ability to link geographically dispersed individuals to changing data without the filtering provided by traditional...; Search Snippett: ...The New Nativism and the Anti -Immigrant Impulse in the United States 300, 300-13 (Juan F. Perea ed., 1997) (analyzing concerns... 2004  
Rachana Pathak The Obstacles to Regulating the Hawala: a Cultural Norm or a Terrorist Hotbed? 27 Fordham International Law Journal 2007 (June, 2004) In its efforts to stymie the flow of funds for terrorists, the U.S. government has, since September 11th, put a halt to many hawala operations. As the Al Barakaat, Alshafei, and Albanna cases show, however, these actions have needlessly sideswiped many civilians with no terrorist involvement, resulting in financial damages and civil rights...; Search Snippett: ...with civil liberties implications); Eric Lichtblau, Threats and Responses: American Muslims; F.B.I. Tells Officers to Count Local Muslims and Mosques, N.Y. Times, Jan. 27, 2003, at A13 (reporting that F.B.I. ordered field supervisors to count mosques and Muslims in their areas as part of antiterrorism effort); John Mintz & Douglas Farah, Small Scams Probed for Terror Ties; Muslim, Arab Stores Monitored As 2004  
Ming Hsu Chen Two Wrongs Make a Right: Hybrid Claims of Discrimination 79 New York University Law Review 685 (May, 2004) This Note reinterprets and recontextualizes the pronouncement in Employment Division v. Smith (Smith II) that exemptions from generally applicable laws will not be granted unless claims of free exercise are accompanied by the assertion of another constitutional right. It argues that when Arab American Muslims, and others who are of minority race... 2004  
Kevin R. Johnson Civil Liberties Post-september 11: a Time of Danger, a Time of Opportunity 2 Seattle Journal for Social Justice 3 (Fall/Winter, 2003) From legal scholarship to pop culture, the statement September 11 changed everything has become almost a mantra. More often than not, the phrase is not invoked with a clear articulation of what in fact has changed, but as a way of explaining why security measures must trump civil rights. Because so much in the United States, if not the world, was...; Search Snippett: ...Law After September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims , 58 N.Y.U. Ann. Survey Am . L. 295 (2002); Raquel Aldana... 2003  
Adrien Katherine Wing Civil Rights in the Post 911 World: Critical Race Praxis, Coalition Building, and the War on Terrorism 63 Louisiana Law Review 717 (Spring, 2003) As we await the decisions in the University of Michigan affirmative action cases, this symposium raises a timely and important query: is civil rights law dead? This article answers that query by asserting that there is a need for a thorough reconceptualization in the 21st century. Historically, civil rights in the United States has been synonymous...; Search Snippett: ...World War II. [FN95] The legal position of Arabs and Muslims has especially declined since the exceptionally speedy passage of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism... 2003  
Deborah A. Ramirez , Jennifer Hoopes , Tara Lai Quinlan Defining Racial Profiling in a Post-september 11 World 40 American Criminal Law Review 1195 (Summer, 2003) In the immediate aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, there was an apparent shift in the debate about racial profiling. After years of condemning the practice of racial profiling as one that violated civil rights, commentators began to accept and even advocate the practice as a necessary...; Search Snippett: ...the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and during the United States' newly declared War on Terrorism, however, new questions and concerns have been raised about racial profiling of Arab and Muslim Americans. Arabs, Muslims, and others whom police and security personnel... 2003  
Charu A. Chandrasekhar Flying While Brown: Federal Civil Rights Remedies to Post-9/11 Airline Racial Profiling of South Asians 10 Asian Law Journal 215 (May, 2003) The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) permanently transformed the American civil liberties landscape. After nineteen Arab Muslim men hijacked and crashed commercial aircraft into the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon, people of South Asian, Arab, and Middle Eastern descent have become targets of hundreds of hate crimes and... 2003  
Kevin R. Johnson Immigration, Civil Rights, and Coalitions for Social Justice 1 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 181 (Fall, 2003) In the face of persistent attacks in the popular press, as well as academia, the critical study of the impact of race on the social fabric of the United States continues. Immigration law historically has been considered a specialty area of practitioners spurned by academics. However, the treatment of aliens, particularly noncitizens of color,...; Search Snippett: ...Law After September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims , 58 N.Y.U. Ann. Survey Am . L. 295 (2002); Sameer M. Ashar, Immigration Enforcement and Subordination: The Consequences of Racial Profiling After September 11 , 34 Conn. L. Rev . 1185 (2002... 2003  
Eric L. Muller Inference or Impact? Racial Profiling and the Internment's True Legacy 1 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 103 (Fall, 2003) In the debate about racial and ethnic profiling in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks, critics of the administration's policies have frequently argued that the government has made the same fundamental error as the Roosevelt administration made when it forced 110,000 Japanese Americans into camps during World War II. This is a powerful...; Search Snippett: ...judicial approval of much of that program in Korematsu v. United States [FN9] James Ridgeway put the point most explosively just a... 2003  
Steven W. Becker Mirror, Mirror on the Wall .: Assessing the Aftermath of September 11th 37 Valparaiso University Law Review 563 (Spring, 2003) Behavior is a mirror in which every one shows his image. Modern American law has come a long way since the time when outbreak of war made every enemy national an outlaw .. Unfortunately, the sentiment expressed by these words, which were penned by United States Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson more than fifty years ago, has not been heeded...; Search Snippett: 10 (describing government proceedings against Benevolence International Foundation, a Muslim charity); see also Steven W. Becker, The USA PATRIOT Act... 2003  
Kevin R. Johnson Open Borders? 51 UCLA Law Review 193 (October, 2003) U.S. immigration law is premised on the fundamental idea that it is permissible, desirable, and necessary to restrict immigration into the United States and to treat borders as a barrier to entry rather than a port of entry. In this Article, Kevin Johnson seeks to add to the scholarly dialogue on immigration law by considering the possible...; Search Snippett: ...Law After September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims, 58 N.Y.U. Ann. Survey Am. L. 295 (2002); Raquel Aldana... 2003  
Shirin Sinnar Patriotic or Unconstitutional? The Mandatory Detention of Aliens under the Usa Patriot Act 55 Stanford Law Review 1419 (April, 2003) 1420 I. Statutory Analysis: The USA Patriot Act Immigration Provisions. 1422 A. Section 412: Mandatory Detention of Certified Aliens. 1424 B. The Effect of Section 412. 1426 II. The Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. 1427 III. Procedural Due Process. 1429 A. Is There a Protected Liberty Interest?. 1429 B. What Process Is...; Search Snippett: ...Sameer M. Ashar, Immigration Enforcement and Subordination: The Consequences of Racial Profiling After September 11, 34 Conn. L. Rev. 1185 (2002) (describing experience of Pakistani detainee in United States in context of racial profiling); Samuel Gross & Debra Livingston, Racial Profiling Under Attack, 102 Colum. L. Rev. 1413, 1413 (2002) (presenting framework for defining and evaluating the 2003  
Victor C. Romero Proxies for Loyalty in Constitutional Immigration Law: Citizenship and Race after September 11 52 DePaul Law Review 871 (Spring 2003) I want to share with you some thoughts about using citizenship and race as proxies for loyalty in constitutional immigration discourse within two contexts: one historical and one current. The current context is the profiling of Muslim and Arab immigrants post-September 11, and the historical context is the distinction the Constitution draws between... 2003  
Stephen J. Ellmann Racial Profiling and Terrorism 19 New York Law School Journal of Human Rights 305 (2003) September 11 has forced us to look again at who we are. We have re-encountered our own society, as we came to grips with the deaths of thousands only a few blocks from our law school. We have re-encountered the world, its intractable conflicts and the rage and ruthlessness those conflicts sometimes generate. We have sought to reaffirm, as lawyers,...; Search Snippett: ...Second, and of more immediate concern domestically, discrimination may alienate Muslim and Middle Eastern communities in the United States, in much the same way that racial profiling has alienated black communities already. As Fareed Zakaria points... 2003  
Kevin R. Johnson September 11 and Mexican Immigrants: Collateral Damage Comes Home 52 DePaul Law Review 849 (Spring 2003) The federal government responded swiftly to the mass destruction and horrible loss of life on September 11, 2001. Quickly initiating a war on terror, the U.S. government pursued military action in Afghanistan. The violation of the civil rights of Arab and Muslim noncitizens in the United States followed as well. In the months immediately after... 2003  
Kevin R. Johnson The Struggle for Civil Rights: the Need For, and Impediments To, Political Coalitions among and Within Minority Groups 63 Louisiana Law Review 759 (Spring, 2003) The ominous title of this conference-Is Civil Rights Law Dead?-is in no small part a sign of the times. The last few years have seen dire setbacks in civil rights law, including but not limited to attacks on affirmative action, passage of restrictionist immigration legislation and welfare reform, imposition of limits on civil rights litigation,...; Search Snippett: ...Law After September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims, 58 N.Y.U. Ann. Survey Am. L. 295 (2002); Sameer M. Ashar, Immigration Enforcement and Subordination: The Consequences of Racial Profiling After September 11, 34 Conn. L. Rev. 1185 (2001-02) ; Bill Ong Hing, Vigilante Racism: The De-Americanization of Immigrant America, 7 Mich. J. Race & L. 441 (2002) ; Thomas W. Joo... 2003  
Michelle Carey You Don't Know If They'll Let You out in One Day, One Year, or Ten Years . . . Indefinite Detention of Immigrants after Zadvydas V. Davis 24 Chicano-Latino Law Review 12 (Spring 2003) They just lock us up and throw away the key. It's like a people business for them. They don't care about us. They have beds here and it's like they're losing business unless they fill up the beds. So they just keep us locked down . . . I understand that I made a mistake, but I already did my time for that. Here I don't even know how much time I...; Search Snippett: ...of hate and racial profiling. See Bill Ong Hing, Vigilante Racism: The De-Americanization and Subordination of Immigrant America, 7 Mich. J. Race and L. 441 (2002) (naming and... 2003  
Inna Nazarova Alienating "Human" from "Right": U.s. and Uk Non-compliance with Asylum Obligations under International Human Rights Law 25 Fordham International Law Journal 1335 (June, 2002) Let the terrorists among us be warned, said the U.S. Attorney General John D. Ashcroft in a speech at the U.S. Conference of Mayors on October 25, 2001. If you overstay your visas even by one day, we will arrest you. If you violate a local law, we will work to make sure that you are put in jail and kept in custody as long as possible. The U.S...; Search Snippett: ...Islamic fundamentalist organization in Britain). . See Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism... 2002  
Lyrissa Barnett Lidsky Brandenburg and the United States' War on Incitement Abroad: Defending a Double Standard 37 Wake Forest Law Review 1009 (2002) [E]very nation must have avenues for the peaceful expression of opinion and dissent. When these avenues are closed, the temptation to speak through violence grows. -- President George W. Bush We have nothing to fear from the demoralizing reasonings of some, if others are left free to demonstrate their errors . . . . -- Thomas Jefferson Although a...; Search Snippett: 15 (noting the often very one-sided view of Islam in Western media ); Leti Volpp, The Citizen and the Terrorist, 49 UCLA L. Rev. 1575 (2002) (examining racial stereotyping of Arabs in the aftermath of September 11, 2001); Gallup Poll Analysis, The Impact of the Attacks on America (Sept. 25, 2001) 2002  
Derek O'Brien , Vaughan Carter Chant down Babylon: Freedom of Religion and the Rastafarian Challenge to Majoritarianism 18 Journal of Law and Religion 219 (2002) . . . to a very large extent power consists in the ability to make others inhabit your story of their reality. The accommodation afforded to religious differences within the legal systems of the common law world is as much a political as a legal concern. As such it is part of a much wider debate about the nature of democratic government within a...; Search Snippett: ...on the ground that: [T]he teachings of the Nation of Islam preclude fighting for the United States not because of objections to participation in war in any form, but rather because of political and racial objections to policies of the United States as interpreted by Elijah Muhammad . . . . It is therefore our conclusion... 2002  
Larry Catá Backer Human Rights and Legal Education in the Western Hemisphere: Legal Parochialism and Hollow Universalism 21 Penn State International Law Review 115 (Fall 2002) There appears to be a trend towards convergence of individual human rights norms. Universal individual human rights has become an increasingly accepted part of the institutional norms of nations in the Western Hemisphere. Educators across the Americas have an important, perhaps critical, role to play in the internalization of universal individual...; Search Snippett: ...Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887)). . For those academics in the Americas who toady to the increasingly anachronistic icons of third world... 2002  
Sameer M. Ashar Immigration Enforcement and Subordination: the Consequences of Racial Profiling after September 11 34 Connecticut Law Review 1185 (Summer, 2002) I appreciate the opportunity offered by this Symposium to reflect on the questions raised by immigration enforcement activities undertaken since the September 11 attacks. Like many others in New York and elsewhere, the shock of the collapse of the World Trade Center towers caused me to lose sensation in some part of myself. The spate of hate crime...; Search Snippett: ...focus of law enforcement on innocent Arab and South Asian Muslims in the United States, Ashcroft seems to invite vigilantism on the part of civilians, a coded racial appeal of the type that has had disastrous consequences throughout... 2002  
Richard A. Epstein Liberty, Equality, and Privacy: Choosing a Legal Foundation for Gay Rights 2002 University of Chicago Legal Forum 73 (2002) One of the central tasks of constitutional law involves the integration of substantive and antidiscrimination guarantees of two types of legal rules. On the first side, the Constitution contains a variety of rights that look to be substantive in nature. High on this list are the Constitution's provisions that deal with the protection of contracts,...; Search Snippett: ...Herald 25 (Nov 7, 2001) Prior to the attack on America, racial profiling was considered a blatant civil rights violation. . . . In the... 2002  
Thomas W. Joo Presumed Disloyal: Executive Power, Judicial Deference, and the Construction of Race Before and after September 11 34 Columbia Human Rights Law Review Rev. 1 (Fall 2002) Because of its peculiar position as the official voice of society, law plays an important role in the construction of social institutions and beliefs, even those that are not typically considered legal. The study of law and social norms and the study of expressive law focus on this aspect of law. Of course, law does not make up social...; Search Snippett: ...The Arab is racialized as a terrorist, but the Arab racial category is sometimes conflated with the Muslim religious category, even though most Arabs in America are not Muslim and most of the world's Muslims are not Arabs. [FN147] Further complicating matters is the fact... 2002  
Charlton C. Copeland Private Pathologies and Public Policies: Race, Class, and the Failure of Child Welfare 20 Yale Law and Policy Review 513 (2002) As scholars and journalists focus their attention on the problems of racial profiling, increased incarceration among young black men, and their effects on the larger black community, Professor Dorothy Roberts calls our attention to the intersections of race and gender in modern interactions with the child welfare system. In an earlier work, Killing...; Search Snippett: ...1999); Michael Tonry, Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (1995); Farah Brelvi, Un-American Activities: Racial Profiling and the Blacklash After Sept. 11, 48 Fed. Lawyer 69 (2001); D.J. Silton, U.S. Prisons and Racial Profiling: A Covertly Racist Nation Rides a Vicious Cycle, 20 Law & Ineq. 53 (2002) ; Madeline Baro Diaz, Muslims: Incidents of Bias Go Unreported; Community Leaders 2002  
Susan M. Akram , Kevin R. Johnson Race, Civil Rights, and Immigration Law after September 11, 2001: the Targeting of Arabs and Muslims 58 New York University Annual Survey of American Law 295 (2002) Although only time will tell, September 11, 2001, promises to be a watershed in the history of the United States. After the tragic events of that day, including the hijacking of four commercial airliners for use as weapons of mass destruction, America went to war on many fronts, including but not limited to military action in Afghanistan. As... 2002 Yes
Lori Sachs September 11, 2001: the Constitution During Crisis: a New Perspective 29 Fordham Urban Law Journal 1715 (April, 2002) At 8:48 a.m. on September 11, 2001, the first of two hijacked planes crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. By 10:28 a.m., the worst attack on American soil had ended, but the nation had not yet begun to react. Four flights had been hijacked that day: two crashed into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon,...; Search Snippett: ...Middle Eastern descent); Cecilia M. Vega, Reprisals Worry Arab-Americans, Muslims, Remember Racial Attacks That Followed Oklahoma City Bombing, Press Democrat, Sept. 12... 2002  
Nancy Ehrenreich Subordination and Symbiosis: Mechanisms of Mutual Support Between Subordinating Systems 71 UMKC Law Review 251 (Winter 2002) I. INTRODUCTION: THE PERIL AND PROMISE OF IDENTITY THEORY. 52 II. DANGERS OF THE DISCOURSE OF DISTINCTNESS. 258 A. The Divide-and-Conquer Tactic. 259 B. The Implication-of-Impurity Tactic. 262 III. IDENTITY THEORY, INTERSECTIONALITY, AND THE ASSUMPTION OF CONFLICTING INTERESTS. 263 A. Identity Analysis and Intersectionality. 263 B....; Search Snippett: ...excuse for American imperialism. [FN163] More recent examples are the racist images of Iraqis as fanatic savages that were frequently invoked to justify United States conduct during the Gulf War (and are resurfacing in Bush... 2002  
Leti Volpp The Citizen and the Terrorist 49 UCLA Law Review 1575 (June, 2002) Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there have been more than one thousand incidents of hate violence reported in the United States. How do we understand the emergence of this violence in a context of national tragedy? This Article suggests that September 11 facilitated the consolidation of a new identity category that groups...; Search Snippett: ...Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person currently facing charges in the United States in connection to the September 11 attacks--belie the purported effectiveness of racial profiling: Not all terrorists are persons who appear Middle Eastern, Arab, or Muslim. [FN38] And these cases in addition belie what sadly does... 2002  
John O. Calmore The Law and Culture-shift: Race and the Warren Court Legacy 59 Washington and Lee Law Review 1095 (Fall, 2002) I. L2-3,T3Introduction 1096. II. L2-3,T3Race Law: The View from Culture 1104. III. L2-3,T3City of Memphis v. Greene: The Legal Construction of Unwanted Traffic 1112. IV. L2-3,T3The Expanding Regulation of Unwanted Traffic: Vignettes Beyond the Bench 1120. A. Public Accommodations at the Adam's Mark Hotel Chain. 1122 B. Dubuque, Iowa, and the...; Search Snippett: ...them to be sexually submissive); Laura E. Gomez, Race Mattered: Racial Formation and the Politics of Crime in Territorial New Mexico... 2002  
Catherine Etheridge Otto Tracking Immigrants in the United States: Proposed and Perceived Needs to Protect the Borders of the United States 28 North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation 477 (Winter 2002) It is often stated that the United States is a nation of immigrants. Despite this truth, the country's leaders often have questioned the wisdom of maintaining a country that is open to immigration. The debate concerning the proper methods to track immigrants once they have entered the United States is ongoing. At several critical moments in the...; Search Snippett: ...announcement that more than 300,000 deportable immigrants are in the United States, 6,000 of which are Arab and Muslim men, concern has been raised of undue racial profiling in the hunt for terrorists. [FN270] Ibrahim Hooper, spokesman... 2002  
Marc R. Michaud Guilty but Not Responsible: the Need for a Criminal Duty to Mitigate Injuries 34 Suffolk University Law Review 629 (2001) A man driving recklessly hits another car, injuring the driver, a mother, and the back seat passenger, a four year old girl; the man is consequently charged with operating a motor vehicle to endanger. In accordance with the tenets of her religion, Christian Science, the mother refuses medical treatment both for herself and for her daughter....; Search Snippett: ...482 U.S. 342, 350-51 (1987) (rejecting prisoner's request for Muslim prayer service when timing conflicted with legitimate prison practices); Goldman... 2001  
Ali Khan Islam as Intellectual Property "My Lord! Increase Me in Knowledge." 31 Cumberland Law Review 631 (2000-2001) This article presents Islam as protected knowledge, a form of intellectual property. The Quran, the Sunna, and the unique marks and symbols of faith, together constitute the protected knowledge of Islam. These timeless assets establish a way of life devoted to none but One God. As a favor, God has placed these knowledge-based assets in an... 2001 Yes
Sheryll D. Cashin Middle-class Black Suburbs and the State of Integration: a Post-integrationist Vision for Metropolitan America 86 Cornell Law Review 729 (May, 2001) Introduction. 730 I. The Middle-Class Black Suburb. 735 A. History of Black Suburbanization, Popular Attitudes Towards Integration, and the State of Integration in the United States. 735 B. The Extent and Origins of the Middle-Class Black Suburb. 741 1. The Extent of Middle-Class Black Suburbs. 741 2. The Origins of Middle-Class Black Suburbs. 743...; Search Snippett: ...338-39 (1973) (noting that, after leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X came to reject the idea of building a separate black nation in America based on racial superiority). . For an overview of the historical arguments for... 2001  
Lee A. Harris Political Autonomy as a Form of Reparations to African-americans 29 Southern University Law Review 25 (Fall 2001) I. INTRODUCTION For good reason, there has been little writing on reparations for African-Americans. After all, the notion of African-Americans receiving payment in cash is preposterous ; the argument for affirmative action as a form of reparations for African-Americans--an argument for payment in kind--is unconstitutional ; and, the idea of...; Search Snippett: ...deported. . See LEIMAN, supra note 4, at 276 ( (T)he Muslims (under the organizational name Nation of Islam) called for complete racial separation and an exodus from the American system, either as a black enclave within the geographical boundaries of America or a similar spot in Africa. . BROOKS, supra note... 2001  
Brett Anderson Recognizing Substance: Adoptees and Affiliates of Native American Tribes Claiming Free Exercise Rights 7 Washington and Lee Race and Ethnic Ancestry Law Journal 61 (Spring, 2001) is not surprising to see widespread and far reaching governmental regulations due to the current regulatory welfare state that characterizes our federal government. More and more frequently the actions of the government directly affect, regulate, or otherwise modify diverse aspects of human affairs. Sometimes the regulations are beneficial and...; Search Snippett: ...Cir. Feb. 7, 2001) (rejecting relationship between religious beliefs and racial make-up or tribal membership); Combs v. Corrections Corp. of America, 977 F. Supp. 799, 802 (W.D. La. 1997) (stating that... 2001  
Farah Brelvi Un-american Activities 48-DEC Federal Lawyer 68 (November/December, 2001) I am writing this feeling so depressed and frustrated. I am sure you all know that I am Egyptian and of Muslim faith. I was also born and raised in America. Since September 11, my family and friends of the same background have been dealing with the feelings of fear and sadness like everyone else. But we've also been dealing with more . you all know... 2001  
S.A. Jackson Islam and Affirmative Action 14 Journal of Law and Religion 405 (1999-2000) To Nadim'Abd al-Ahad...wa l-fitnatu ashaddu mina l-qatl This essay must begin with a point of clarification that is critical for those unfamiliar with Islam. While it is my belief that the view I present represents an Islamic position on Affirmative Action, I make no claim to represent the Islamic position. For far from constituting a... 2000 Yes
Berta Esperanza Hernández-Truyol Nativism, Terrorism, and Human Rights-the Global Wrongs of Reno V. American-arab Anti-discrimination Committee 31 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 521 (Summer, 2000) Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! Wide open and unguarded stand our gates, And through them press a wild motley throng . bringing with them unknown gods and rites .. In street and...; Search Snippett: at 112 n.335 (citing Michael Omi & Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (1986), who suggest that... 2000  
Kevin Hopkins Back to Afrolantica: a Legacy of (Black) Perseverance? 24 New York University Review of Law and Social Change 447 (1998) The ancestors remind us, despite the history of pain We are a going-on people who will rise again. -- Maya Angelou Back to Africa movements have appealed to large masses of Black Americans for nearly two centuries. Leaders of these movements have exhorted blacks to leave the United States and to move to Africa or the Caribbean in order to escape...; Search Snippett: ...171. See also Barbara Kleban Mills, Predicting Disaster For A Racist America, Louis Farrakhan Envisions An African Homeland For U.S. Blacks, People, Sept. 17, 1990, at 111; Muslim Suggests Secession of Blacks, N.Y. Times, Apr. 22, 1984, at... 1998  
Mary Ann Dempsey A Shot in the Arm: Legal & Social Obstacles to United States Needle Exchange Programs 17 Boston College Third World Law Journal 31 (Winter, 1997) AIDS is now one of the 10 leading causes of death among one to four-year-olds and among 15 to 24-year-olds in the United States. In New York, it is the leading cause of death among men and women 20 to 49 years old. There is the expectation that parents will die before their children. Because of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not working out that way...; Search Snippett: ...eliminate the black race. [FN168] In 1988, the Nation of Islam voiced their position on AIDS and drew clear racial lines by distributing literature claiming AIDS was an attempt by white America to destroy black America. [FN169] Besides being backed by the strong vocal leader Farrakhan... 1997  
Roy Carleton Howell Structuring and Financing Foreign Investments: Advancement of Black American Economic Interests 21 Thurgood Marshall Law Review 275 (Spring, 1996) The American marketplace, although very wealthy, has been historically hostile to Black Americans. After all, American development was advanced through exploitation of captured African slave labor. Thus, it is understandable why institutional racism is a contemporary obstacle to those of African heritage who participate within that economy....; Search Snippett: ...hand, they hymn the praise of Minister Farrakhan's (Nation of Islam) sermons condemning institutional America as racist, and advocating economic independence. [FN12] Then on the other hand... 1996  
Richard H. McAdams Cooperation and Conflict: the Economics of Group Status Production and Race Discrimination 108 Harvard Law Review 1003 (March, 1995) L1-5 PAGE I. L2-5,T2Explaining Excess Cooperation and Conflict: An Economic Theory of Social Groups. .1008 A. L3-5,T3The Empirical Evidence of Excess Cooperation. .1009 1. L4-5,T4Dilemma Experiments: Evidence of Non-Material Motivations for Cooperation. .1011 2. L4-5,T4Dilemma Experiments: Evidence of Non-Altruistic Motivations for Cooperation....; Search Snippett: ...researcher summarizes: [F]raternalistic [relative deprivation] is useful for predicting white racism and support of black political candidates in the United States, militancy among black Americans and their approval of violence to... 1995  
Leila P. Sayeh , Adriaen M. Morse, Jr. Islam and the Treatment of Women: an Incomplete Understanding of Gradualism 30 Texas International Law Journal 311 (Spring, 1995) C1-3Summary I. Introduction. 312 II. Understanding Islam. 313 A. Islam as Religion. 313 B. Islam as Jurisprudence: Principles of Interpretation. 316 III. Gradualism and Islam. 318 A. Gradualism as a Method of Interpretation. 318 B. Gradualism as Applied to Certain Practices. 319 IV. Evolution or Regression: Islam and Women. 321 A. The Age of the... 1995 Yes
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