David H. Gans "WE DO NOT WANT TO BE HUNTED": THE RIGHT TO BE SECURE AND OUR CONSTITUTIONAL STORY OF RACE AND POLICING 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 239 (April, 2021) Both Supreme Court doctrine and the scholarly literature on the constitutional constraints on policing generally begin and end with the Fourth Amendment, ignoring the Fourteenth Amendment's transformative guarantees designed to curtail police abuses and safeguard liberty, personal security, and equality for all, regardless of race. This Article... 2021
Suzannah Dowling (UN)DUE PROCESS: ADVERSARIAL CROSS-EXAMINATION IN TITLE IX ADJUDICATIONS 73 Maine Law Review 123 (2021) Introduction I. Title IX and Campus Sexual Assault A. Title IX's Evolution to Cover Campus Sexual Assault B. Campus Sexual Assault 1. Underreporting of Sexual Assault II. Title IX, Due Process, and Cross-Examination A. The Office for Civil Rights and Title IX Enforcement: University Obligations 1. 2011 Dear Colleague Letter & 2014 Q&A: A... 2021
Nicolas Burnosky 2-4-6-8, WHO DO WE APPRECIATE? THE THIRD CIRCUIT SCORES A TOUCHDOWN FOR STUDENT-ATHLETE FREE SPEECH RIGHTS 28 Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal 369 (2021) The First Amendment is a continuous source of conflict within the public school context. Schools wield vast discretionary authority to regulate student conduct. However, schools are not totally immune from the dictates of the First Amendment. Schools must comport with the First Amendment's commands, albeit in a limited way due to their unique... 2021
Kristin Rinehart Totten , Jacquelyn Babinski A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO A QUALITY EDUCATION FOR ALL MICHIGAN CHILDREN 100-FEB Michigan Bar Journal 38 (February, 2021) In Michigan, there are 834 school districts and public school academies, 56 intermediate school districts, and one state Department of Education (MDE). Amid a pandemic that has caused in-person instruction to take a back seat as schools close and reopen, the MDE has issued more than 100 guidance memos. Still, we are left with the most important... 2021
Andrew I. Lief A PROSECUTORIAL SOLUTION TO THE CRIMINALIZATION OF HOMELESSNESS 169 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1971 (June, 2021) Introduction. 1972 I. The Criminalization of Homelessness. 1975 A. An Overview of Antihomeless Laws. 1976 B. The Elements of Antihomeless Laws. 1978 II. Cruel and Unusual Status Crimes. 1979 A. Robinson and Powell: The Status-Act Distinction. 1979 B. Antihomeless Laws in Lower Federal Courts. 1982 III. A Mistaken Solution: The Eighth Amendment.... 2021
Megan Helton A TALE OF TWO CRISES: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF EXCLUSIONARY SCHOOL POLICIES ON STUDENTS DURING A STATE OF EMERGENCY 50 Journal of Law and Education 156 (Spring, 2021) Fifteen years ago, stories of men, women, and children fighting for their lives overwhelmed the headlines. With the click of the remote, living rooms across the United States filled with images of families who were stranded on roof tops and overpasses with no help insight. Some began the trek to the superdome, hoping to be met with government... 2021
  ADA 30 SYMPOSIUM ISSUE 45 Harbinger 1 (January 2, 2021) During September 2020, the NYU Disability Allied Law Students Association (DALSA) held a series of events in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The ADA prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, government programs, and public accommodations. It was unprecedented in its... 2021
Janet E. Neeley ADDRESSING SEXUAL ASSAULT IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE, HIGHER EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT: WHAT RESTORATIVE JUSTICE MEANS FOR SURVIVORS AND COMMUNITY ACCOUNTABILITY 31-FALL Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy 1 (Fall, 2021) The focus on the harm caused by sexual assault and harassment which began as a result of the #MeToo movement is long overdue. The liberating experience of hearing others speak out has sometimes enabled other survivors to do the same. But the same obstacles remain today that have long prevented many survivors from talking publicly about what... 2021
Lynn M. Daggett, J.D., Ph.D., (Education) , Smithmoore P. Myers Chair and Professor of Law, Gonzaga University School of Law ADMISSION OF EVIDENCE IN TITLE IX SEXUAL MISCONDUCT HEARINGS 52 Seton Hall Law Review 1 (2021) New Title IX regulations mandate an adversarial school hearing to resolve formal Title IX complaints of sexual misconduct involving college students. The new regulations adopt an unprecedented approach to the admission of evidence in these hearings. In particular, schools can admit only statements, including medical reports and other documents, by... 2021
Frank D. LoMonte , Courtney Shannon ADMISSIONS AGAINST PINTEREST: THE FIRST AMENDMENT IMPLICATIONS OF REVIEWING COLLEGE APPLICANTS' SOCIAL MEDIA SPEECH 49 Hofstra Law Review 773 (Spring, 2021) Archie is a straight-A, high school graduate with superlative standardized test scores and extracurricular activities--well in excess of the average credentials at his first-choice college, Riverdale State University. Betty, who works in Riverdale State's admissions office, is about to put Archie's application into the yes pile when she... 2021
Melissa D. Carter AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH A POUND OF CURE: WHY CHILDREN'S LAWYERS MUST CHAMPION PREVENTIVE LEGAL ADVOCACY 42 Children's Legal Rights Journal 1 (2021) The time for prevention in child welfare finally seems to have arrived. More than two decades ago, research documenting the effects of child abuse, neglect and family adversity on adult health and well-being furthered understanding about the ways in which adversity and toxic stress experienced in childhood relate to poor outcomes and highlight the... 2021
Robyn M. Powell, PhD, JD APPLYING THE HEALTH JUSTICE FRAMEWORK TO ADDRESS HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INEQUITIES EXPERIENCED BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES DURING AND AFTER COVID-19 96 Washington Law Review 93 (March, 2021) The COVID-19 pandemic has been especially devastating for people with disabilities, as well as other socially marginalized communities. Indeed, an emerging body of scholarship has revealed that people with disabilities are experiencing striking disparities. In particular, scholars have shined a light on state and hospital triage policies... 2021
Addie C. Rolnick ASSIMILATION, REMOVAL, DISCIPLINE, AND CONFINEMENT: NATIVE GIRLS AND GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION 11 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 811 (July, 2021) A full understanding of the roots of child separation must begin with Native children. This Article demonstrates how modern child welfare, delinquency, and education systems are rooted in the social control of indigenous children. It examines the experiences of Native girls in federal and state systems from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s to show... 2021
Cynthia Alkon BARGAINING WITHOUT BIAS 73 Rutgers University Law Review 1337 (Summer, 2021) C1-2Table of Contents Introduction. 1338 I. Plea Bargaining is Largely Unsupervised. 1340 A. The Process of Plea Bargaining. 1342 B. Limits on Prosecutorial Power in Plea Bargaining. 1343 II. Racial Disparities are Exacerbated in Plea Bargaining. 1344 III. The Importance, and Possible Bias, of the First Offer. 1347 IV. Possible Fixes: Structural... 2021
Alexis Hoag BLACK ON BLACK REPRESENTATION 96 New York University Law Review 1493 (November, 2021) When it comes to combating structural racism, representation matters, and this is true for criminal defense as much as it is for mental health services and education. This Article calls for the expansion of the Sixth Amendment right to counsel of choice to indigent defendants and argues that such an expansion could be of particular benefit to... 2021
Jordan Martin BREONNA TAYLOR: TRANSFORMING A HASHTAG INTO DEFUNDING THE POLICE 111 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 995 (Fall, 2021) How can modern policing be reformed to address police violence against Black women when it can occur at no fault of their own and end with a shower of bullets in the middle of the night while within the sanctity of their own home? What is accomplished when her name is said but justice is never achieved? What good does it do when her story is... 2021
Nancy A. Welsh BUT IS IT GOOD: THE NEED TO MEASURE, ASSESS, AND REPORT ON COURT-CONNECTED ADR 22 Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution 427 (Spring, 2021) We know that very few civil matters reach disposition through trial--but what do we really know about how civil cases do reach disposition? What number of civil cases reach disposition through settlement? What number of civil cases reach settlement through court-connected alternative dispute resolution (ADR)? Do we know enough about the results... 2021
Frank D. LoMonte CENSORSHIP MAKES THE SCHOOL LOOK BAD: WHY COURTS AND EDUCATORS MUST EMBRACE THE "PASSIONATE CONVERSATION" 65 Washington University Journal of Law & Policy 91 (2021) This Article analyzes the Supreme Court's decision in Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeiex. The Court held that students have no freedom to choose the content of school-sponsored newspapers or other curricular vehicles, so long as the justification for censorship is reasonably related to legitimate pedagogical concerns. LoMonte argues the Court... 2021
Christina Cullen, Olivia Alden, Diana Arroyo, Andy Froelich, Meghan Kasner, Conor Kinney, Anique Aburaad, Rebecca Jacobs, Alexandra Spognardi, Alexandra Kuenzli CHILDREN AND RACIAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES: A SELECTIVE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CALL TO ACTION 41 Children's Legal Rights Journal 1 (2021) For many reasons, 2020 became a year of reckoning for racial injustice. While a strong and deserved focus has been paid to criminal justice and police brutality, the systemic racism that underlies those institutions and many others affects more than just adults. Children are impacted by systemic racism in myriad ways that can be tragic, maddening,... 2021
Naomi Mann CLASSROOMS INTO COURTROOMS 59 Houston Law Review 363 (Fall, 2021) The federal Department of Education's (DOE) 2020 Title IX Rule fundamentally transformed the relationship between postsecondary schools (schools) and students. While courts have long warned against turning classrooms into courtrooms, the 2020 Rule nonetheless imposed a mandatory quasi-criminal courtroom procedure for Title IX sexual harassment... 2021
Katherine Elizabeth Holloway CONSEQUENCES OF POLICE IN SCHOOLS: THE CRIMINALIZATION OF CHILDREN IN AN ERA OF MASS INCARCERATION 19 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 3 (Winter 2021) I. Introduction. 5 II. The Historical Development of Police Presence in Schools. 7 III. Contemporary Police Presence in Schools. 12 A. The Role of School Resource Officers in Schools. 13 B. The Reality of School Resource Officers in Schools. 14 C. Impact of School-Based Police on School Safety. 17 D. The Role of School-Based Police in the School-to... 2021
Frank D. LoMonte COPYRIGHT versus THE RIGHT TO COPY: THE CIVIC DANGER OF ALLOWING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW TO OVERRIDE STATE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION LAW 53 Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 159 (Fall, 2021) Journalists, researchers, and activists rely on freedom-of-information laws for access to the essential data and documents they need. But the ability to copy and republish public documents exists in the chilling shadow of copyright law. This Article looks at the growing tension between two bodies of law--federal copyright law and state... 2021
Victor M. Jones COVID-19 AND THE "VIRTUAL" SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE 41 Children's Legal Rights Journal 105 (2021) On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified the COVID-19 disease as a global epidemiological pandemic, prompting an emergency response by countries that are members of WHO, including the United States. Two days later, the executive branch of the U.S. federal government declared the COVID-19 pandemic a national emergency, and... 2021
Jill Lesley DISCIPLINE OR CRIME: AN ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF MEMORANDA OF UNDERSTANDING TO REGULATE SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER INTERVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS 50 Journal of Law and Education 192 (Spring, 2021) School Resource Officers (SROs) have become an integral part of the education environment and are the product of a societal and policy-minded push of law enforcement in schools. As a result of both federal and state legislation, the number of SROs has increased dramatically and has led to an interest in several topics including juvenile justice,... 2021
Reginald M. Turner , Joseph B. Urban EDUCATING CHILDREN ON THEIR BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS 47 Human Rights I (2021) In this issue of Human Rights, we focus on achieving access to justice for those among us who are so many times easily ignored or overlooked--our children. The belief that children should be seen and not heard would seem to have gone out of fashion, along with the home telephone and the answering machine. Unfortunately, this corrosive belief is... 2021
Leah A. Plunkett , Michael S. Lewis EDUCATION CONTRACTS OF ADHESION IN THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021 University of Illinois Law Review Online 1 (Spring, 2021) Stuck inside our house with our young children during the COVID-19 pandemic, we have a newfound appreciation for the vital role that elementary, middle, and high schools play in youth development and the successful functioning of both home and workplace. Today, primary and secondary (K-12) schools and local school districts in the United States... 2021
David Tipson , Rene Kathawala , Nyah Berg , Lauren Webb EFFECTIVE SCHOOL-INTEGRATION MOBILIZATION: THE CASE FOR NON-LITIGATION ADVOCACY AND IMPACT 48 Fordham Urban Law Journal 475 (February, 2021) Introduction. 475 I. Historical Background. 477 A. School Desegregation in the United States. 477 B. School Integration in New York City. 487 C. Status Quo in 2011. 489 II. Framing the Role for Legal Advocacy. 493 III. Implementation. 500 A. Challenging Legal and Regulatory Structures Inhibiting NYCDOE Action. 500 B. Creating a Precedential... 2021
Courtney Shannon ENDING SCHOOL CONTRACTS WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT 46 Human Rights 19 (2021) Most recipients of public school education and educators in countless counties and school districts across the nation probably could not remember a time where law enforcement has not had a presence in public schools. Many students have had the pleasure of meeting Officer Friendly on their visits to classrooms in efforts to teach students about... 2021
Meghan Wicker Darby ENDING THE SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE IN SOUTH CAROLINA THROUGH LEGISLATIVE REFORM 50 Journal of Law and Education 390 (Fall, 2021) The school-to-prison pipeline is a real and prevalent issue in the United States in general, but especially in South Carolina. Zero-tolerance policies that take disciplining discretion away from teachers and put it in the hands of the state fuels the pipeline. As a result, thousands of students are disciplined every year for minor harms, and the... 2021
Perry A. Zirkel ENGLISH LEARNERS IN K-12 SCHOOLS AT THE PERILOUS INTERSECTION WITH DISABILITY LAWS: THE NEED FOR GUARDIAS BILINGÜES 30 Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 59 (Winter, 2021) Introduction. 60 I.Overview of the Intersecting Legal Frameworks. 61 A. EL Statutory Framework. 61 B. Disability Statutory Framework. 63 II.Legal Literature at the EL-Disability Intersection. 65 III.Legal Decisions and Related Authority at the EL-Disability Intersection. 67 A. Identification. 68 1. Child Find. 68 2. Evaluation. 69 3. Eligibility.... 2021
Kevin Woodson ENTRENCHED RACIAL HIERARCHY: EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY FROM THE CRADLE TO THE LSAT 47 Mitchell Hamline Law Review 224 (November, 2021) For my contribution to this special issue of the Minnesota Law Review, I will attempt to situate the problem of black underrepresentation at America's law schools within the broader context of racial hierarchy in American society. The former has generated an extensive body of legal scholarship and commentary, centering primarily on the racial... 2021
Kevin Woodson ENTRENCHED RACIAL HIERARCHY: EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY FROM THE CRADLE TO THE LSAT 105 Minnesota Law Review Headnotes 481 (Spring, 2021) For my contribution to this special issue of the Minnesota Law Review, I will attempt to situate the problem of black underrepresentation at Americas law schools within the broader context of racial hierarchy in American society. The former has generated an extensive body of legal scholarship and commentary, centering primarily on the racial impact... 2021
Daniel Polonsky EQUAL PROTECTION THROUGH STATE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT 56 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 413 (Summer, 2021) By requiring proof of intent to discriminate, federal equal protection doctrine has limited the possibility of achieving substantive racial equality through litigation in federal courts. Unfortunately, state courts have not provided a substantially better avenue for this project. Many state courts have unimaginatively interpreted their... 2021
Helen Hershkoff, Nathan D. Yaffe FEDERALISM AND FEDERAL RIGHTS MINIMALISM: OVERLOOKED EFFECTS ON STATE COURT EDUCATION LITIGATION IN WISCONSIN 2021 Wisconsin Law Review 1011 (2021) In 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez held that education is not a fundamental right under the Fourteenth Amendment and that the Equal Protection Clause did not bar the state of Texas from using a system of school funding that produced radically unequal educational opportunities for students in... 2021
Jessica Trujillo FIXING ATWATER: MODIFYING THE FOURTH AMENDMENT'S "REASONABLENESS" ANALYSIS TO TRACK STATE LAW 98 University of Detroit Mercy Law Review 225 (Winter, 2021) In Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, the United States Supreme Court solidified police officers' ability to arrest based on probable cause. Probable case was the only limitation the Court placed on an officer's use of discretion. As a result, law enforcement is permitted to make intrusive custodial arrests regardless of the severity of the alleged... 2021
Amanda Harmon Cooley FRAMERS' FIDELITY AND THICKET THEORY IN EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE JURISPRUDENCE 58 San Diego Law Review 1 (February-March, 2021) C1-2Table of Contents I. Introduction. 2 II. An Overview of Education Law Establishment Clause Jurisprudence. 7 III. Fidelity to Madisonian Neutrality in Education Law Establishment Clause Cases Involving Religious Activities Within Public Schools. 11 A. Everson v. Board of Education. 14 B. Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education. 18 C.... 2021
Frank LoMonte , Ann Marie Tamburro FROM AFTER-SCHOOL DETENTION TO THE DETENTION CENTER: HOW UNCONSTITUTIONAL SCHOOL-DISRUPTION LAWS PLACE CHILDREN AT RISK OF PROSECUTION FOR "SPEECH CRIMES" 25 Lewis & Clark Law Review 1 (2021) As unrest erupts across the country over issues of police violence and race, how and when police use their authority inside schools is receiving renewed scrutiny. Students of color are uniquely at risk of being subject to overzealous arrest as a result of a confluence of dangerous factors: Young people are constantly surveilled throughout the... 2021
Christopher Cruz FROM DIGITAL DISPARITY TO EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE: CLOSING THE OPPORTUNITY AND ACHIEVEMENT GAPS FOR LOWINCOME, BLACK, AND LATINX STUDENTS 24 Harvard Latinx Law Review 33 (Spring, 2021) The health and economic crises brought about by COVID-19 in 2020 sent society into a downward spiral with the most marginalized groups in the United States feeling disproportionate impacts. For low-income, Black, and Latinx students in particular, school shutdowns and the transition to online learning exacerbated pre-existing inequities in access... 2021
Philip K. Howard FROM PROGRESSIVISM TO PARALYSIS 130 Yale Law Journal Forum 370 (January 6, 2021) The Progressive Movement succeeded in replacing laissez-faire with public oversight of safety and markets. But its vision of neutral administration, in which officials in lab coats mechanically applied law, never reflected the realities and political tradeoffs in most public choices. The crisis of public trust in the 1960s spawned a... 2021
Benjamin Justice HOBBLING: THE EFFECTS OF PROACTIVE POLICING AND MASS IMPRISONMENT ON CHILDREN'S EDUCATION 17 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 31 (2021) education, criminal justice, school, policing, incarceration, pipeline Researchers have written a good deal in the last two decades about the relationship between public education and criminal justice as a pipeline by which public school practices correlate with or cause increased lifetime risk for incarceration for Black and Latinx youth. This... 2021
Hon. Jay Blitzman (Ret.) HONORING CHIEF JUSTICE RALPH GANTS 65-WTR Boston Bar Journal 37 (Winter, 2021) Celebrating the visionary legacy of Chief Justice Ralph Gants demands consideration of his commitment to access to justice and achieving racial and ethnic equity, particularly for marginalized communities. The Chief understood the need to address issues involving youth through a developmentally appropriate lens and the reality that many children... 2021
Kaitlyn Shepherd I WALK THE LINE: BALANCING TEACHERS' AND STUDENTS' RIGHTS IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL DISCIPLINE 33 Regent University Law Review 199 (2020-2021) On December 4, 2015, John Ekblad, a physical science teacher at Central High School in St. Paul, Minnesota, attempted to break up an altercation between two students in the school's cafeteria. In the process, one of the students made disparaging racial remarks before punching Ekblad, throwing him to the floor, and strangling him until he lost... 2021
James Gallagher IMPROVING THE LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF RESTRAINT AND SECLUSION IN D.C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS 6 ALR Accord 259 (October 4, 2021) INTRODUCTION. 259 I.CURRENT RESTRAINT AND SECLUSION REGULATORY FRAMEWORK. 265 A. Overview of Current Restraint and Seclusion Regulation. 266 B. OSSE's Authority as the State Education Agency. 269 II.DEFICIENT REGULATIONS AND LAW. 270 A. Current Lack of Regulations Harms Students. 271 B. OSSE's Proposed Rule Does Not Go Far Enough. 273 C. More Due... 2021
Melissa R. Nadel , George Pesta , Thomas Blomberg , William D. Bales INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNITY CONTEXT IN DECISIONS TO DIVERT OR ARREST 55 Law and Society Review 320 (June, 2021) Diversion programs are increasingly being implemented as an alternative to more severe sanctions, especially within juvenile justice. The civil citation program in Florida is unique in that it diverts juveniles away from the justice system at the earliest decision point of arrest. However, despite its growing use in a number of states, there is... 2021
Deborah Ahrens INTRODUCTION 19 Seattle Journal for Social Justice 387 (Winter, 2021) It is a pleasure to introduce the Seattle Journal for Social Justice Symposium issue, Jails and Prisons: Rights, Re-Entry, and Reform. This symposium brought together a spectrum of voices to discuss the most pressing issue facing people who are incarcerated and people rejoining communities, and the authors challenge us to consider how best to... 2021
Courtney Anderson , Tanya Washington Hicks INTRODUCTION: ASSUMING A CRITICAL LENS IN LEGAL STUDIES: RECONCILING LAWS AND REALITY 37 Georgia State University Law Review 1125 (Summer, 2021) C1-2CONTENTS Introduction. 1126 I. Voting Rights As Quintessential to Equal Access to and Participation in Democracy. 1128 II. Education Is an Engine for Socioeconomic Mobility. 1130 III. The Racialized Criminal (In)Justice System Condemns Individuals and Communities. 1134 IV. Separate and Unequal Housing. 1136 Conclusion. 1138 2021
Susannah G. Price INVISIBLE VICTIMS: COMBATTING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE COLLEGE ADMISSIONS SCANDAL FOR LEARNING-DISABLED STUDENTS 54 Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 461 (Spring, 2021) In a recent college admissions bribery scheme, a network of wealthy parents paid entrance exam proctors, admissions insiders, and medical providers to rig the system that enables students with disabilities to receive testing accommodations. By purchasing false disability diagnoses, these parents procured testing accommodations and facilitated... 2021
Adrienne Young , Jeffrey Bozell IS EDUCATION THE GREAT EQUALIZER? 100-FEB Michigan Bar Journal 17 (February, 2021) We think it is fair to say that good attorneys identify as lifelong learners. Reading the Michigan Bar Journal each month is itself a form of education for us. But education law? That impacts all of us, too. Amid a global pandemic, vocal demands for equity and change, and ongoing concerns around school safety, education law is more important than... 2021
Valerie Slater JUVENILE JUSTICE 56 University of Richmond Law Review 107 (Annual Survey 2021) This Article serves as a review of recent juvenile justice law and legislative trends in Virginia. This Article will review both codified changes and relevant proposed legislation that did not pass the Legislature to more fully identify trends in juvenile justice. While this Article does not capture every proposed or codified change to Virginia... 2021
Samuel Vincent Jones LAW SCHOOLS, CULTURAL COMPETENCY, AND ANTI-BLACK RACISM: THE LIBERTY OF DISCRIMINATION 21 Berkeley Journal of African-American Law & Policy 84 (2021) Introduction. 84 I. Do Law Schools Have Liberty to Discriminate Against Black Law Students?. 86 A. The Black Law Student Experience. 87 B. Law Schools and the Liberty to Foster Anti-Black Racism. 90 II. Should Law Schools Require Cultural Competency Instruction as a Means to Curtail Anti-Black Racial Discrimination?. 96 A. Cultural Competency... 2021
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