Thomas E. Plank THE CREDITOR IN POSSESSION UNDER THE BANKRUPTCY CODE: HISTORY, TEXT, AND POLICY 59 Maryland Law Review 253 (2000) Introduction. 254 I. The Creditor in Possession Under the 1898 Bankruptcy Act. 263 A. Debtor Liquidation. 264 B. Debtor Reorganization. 268 1. Stay and Injunction of Foreclosure. 272 2. Return of Property Items. 281 C. Summary. 290 II. The Creditor in Possession in Drafting the Code. 292 III. The Creditor in Possession in the Text of the Code. 307... 2000
G. Marcus Cole THE FEDERALIST COST OF BANKRUPTCY EXEMPTION REFORM 74 American Bankruptcy Law Journal 227 (Summer, 2000) A debate is raging regarding whether we are witnessing a crisis in bankruptcy in the United States. As Professor Elizabeth Warren has reported in her recent work, The Bankruptcy Crisis, a record one million consumer bankruptcy petitions were filed in 1996. Although bankruptcy filings have dropped over 8 percent in the period ending March 31,... 2000
Lior Jacob Strahilevitz THE UNEASY CASE FOR DEVOLUTION OF THE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX 85 Iowa Law Review 907 (March, 2000) L1-3Introduction 909 I. L2-3The Requisition in the Pre-Constitutional Period 912 II. L2-3The Structure of a Modern Requisition Arrangement 919 A. The Baseline. 920 B. The Proposal. 923 C. Requisitions Finance's Effect on Spending. 925 D. Requisitions Finance's Effect on Citizen Mobility. 927 III. L2-3The Communitarian Analysis of Requisitions... 2000
David A. Skeel, Jr. VERN COUNTRYMAN AND THE PATH OF PROGRESSIVE (AND POPULIST) BANKRUPTCY SCHOLARSHIP 113 Harvard Law Review 1075 (March, 2000) The prominent lawyer and former Yale law professor John Frank tells of Vern Countryman's involvement in the case that eventually became Griswold v. Connecticut. In Griswold, as most readers will recall, the Supreme Court struck down a Connecticut statute that prohibited the sale or use of contraceptives. According to Justice Douglas's majority... 2000
André Douglas Pond Cummings "LIONS AND TIGERS AND BEARS, OH MY" OR "REDSKINS AND BRAVES AND INDIANS, OH WHY": RUMINATIONS ON MCBRIDE V. UTAH STATE TAX COMMISSION, POLITICAL CORRECTNESS, AND THE REASONABLE PERSON 36 California Western Law Review 11 (Fall 1999) It is to be hoped that one day all offensive and derogatory language, speech, and symbols predicated on race will be completely eradicated from our culture. In the meantime, public officials have the obligation to ensure that they are not used with the imprimatur of the State. On January 29, 1999, the Utah Supreme Court handed down an important and... 1999
By Leo P. Martinez "TO LAY AND COLLECT TAXES": THE CONSTITUTIONAL CASE FOR PROGRESSIVE TAXATION 18 Yale Law and Policy Review 111 (1999) We ain't got no choice. John Steinbeck For centuries, people have debated whether the wealthy should pay more taxes than the poor, and if so, how much more. These issues have never been resolved, and solutions that will satisfy everyone seem unlikely to emerge. In this nation, the notion of progressive taxation sparked one of the early battles... 1999
Stacy Belisle AMERICAN INDIAN LAW --- TRIBAL LANDS --- AN INDIAN TRIBE THAT HOLDS TITLE TO LAND BY TRANSFER UNDER THE ALASKA NATIVE CLAIMS SETTLEMENT ACT MAY NOT IMPOSE BUSINESS TAX WHEN ITS LAND IS NOT INDIAN COUNTRY WITHIN THE STATUTORY DEFINITION. ALASKA V. NATIVE V 76 University of Detroit Mercy Law Review 903 (Spring 1999) In 1986, Alaska decided to construct a public school on land that belonged to the Venetie Indian Tribe (the Tribe). The Tribe had acquired the land under a provision of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA/the Act). As a result, it held title to the land in fee simple. Under a provision of ANCSA, the Tribe formed a tribal government which... 1999
Jeremy Berkowitz, Richard Hynes, Federal Reserve Board, Wharton Financial Institutions Center BANKRUPTCY EXEMPTIONS AND THE MARKET FOR MORTGAGE LOANS 42 Journal of Law & Economics 809 (October, 1999) The recent explosion in personal bankruptcy filings has motivated research into whether credit markets are being adversely affected by generous legal provisions. Empirically, this question is examined by comparing credit conditions and bankruptcy exemptions across states. We note that the literature has focused on aggregate household credit, making... 1999
Terry A.C. Gray DE-CONCENTRATING POVERTY AND PROMOTING MIXED-INCOME COMMUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING: THE QUALITY HOUSING AND WORK RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1998 11 Stanford Law and Policy Review 173 (Winter, 1999) Those concerned about ensuring decent, affordable housing for the least well off members of our society must also be concerned with the dramatic changes in the georacial demographics of poverty. In the context of rising housing costs, declining real wages, job shortages, and the shift from a manufacturing to a service-based economy, racially-biased... 1999
Gregory D. Squires , Sally O'Connor, Michael Grover, James Walrath HOUSING AFFORDABILITY IN THE MILWAUKEE METROPOLITAN AREA: A MATTER OF INCOME, RACE AND POLICY 9-FALL Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law 34 (Fall, 1999) The cost of housing is going to affect the county's business development. Eventually, companies will choose to expand where their workers can afford to live.--richard Belling, Vice President for Mortgage Lending, Grafton State Bank If you people can't afford to live in our town, then you'll just have to leave.--bill Haines, Mayor, Mount Laurel, New... 1999
Kim Johnson-Spratt HOUSING DISCRIMINATION AND SOURCE OF INCOME: A TENANT'S LOSING BATTLE 32 Indiana Law Review 457 (1999) Many believe that housing discrimination is a past wrong that is now corrected by the Fair Housing Act of 1968. Nothing could be further from the truth. Housing discrimination against the poor is still permissible in many realms under current law. The poor in this country often cannot obtain adequate housing and can be forced to move their families... 1999
D. Alexander Ritchie INTERMEDIATE SANCTIONS: CONTROLLING THE TAX-EXEMPT ORGANIZATION MANAGER 18 Virginia Tax Review 875 (Spring, 1999) I. Introduction 875 II. Rules Affecting Exempt Organization Managers 877 A. Proposed Regulations for Intermediate Sanctions 877 B. Loss of Exempt Status 881 C. Some Problems and Questions 883 III. Firm Theory and the Exempt Organization 888 A. Incentives and Compensation in the For-Profit Corporation 888 B. The Goals of the Exempt Organization 890... 1999
Daniel M. Schneider INTERPRETING THE INTERPRETERS: ASSESSING FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF TAX LITERATURE 4 Florida Tax Review 483 (1999) I. Introduction. 485 II. Methodology. 486 A. Sampling Tax Literature. 486 B. Interpreting the Results. 488 C. Questions Asked. 489 III. The Sample. 493 A. Data About Tax Journals. 493 B. Literature and Data About Women. 495 1. Observations About Women, Careers, and Publishing. 495 2. Data About Women in Fields Associated With Tax. 499 3.... 1999
Dorothy A. Brown RACIAL EQUALITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WHAT'S TAX POLICY GOT TO DO WITH IT? 21 University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review 759 (Summer, 1999) [T]ax . . . statutes . . . may be more burdensome to the poor and to the average black than to the more affluent white. In 1976, Supreme Court Justice Byron White recognized that tax statutes may have a disparate impact based upon race. Yet, it has taken the legal academy until the 1990's to begin to address those issues, and given the recent... 1999
Basil H. Mattingly REESTABLISHMENT OF BANKRUPTCY REVIEW OF OPPRESSIVE FORECLOSURE SALES: THE INTERACTION OF AVOIDANCE POWERS AS APPLIED TO CREDITOR BID-INS 50 South Carolina Law Review 363 (Winter, 1999) I. Introduction. 364 II. Fraudulent Transfer Law as Applied to Real Property Foreclosures. 367 A. Fraudulent Transfer Law: Introduction. 368 1. Definition of Transfer. 370 2. Failure of Reasonably Equivalent Value. 373 B. The Origin of Constructive Fraudulent Transfer Challenges. 374 III. Avoidable Preference Law Under § 547 of the Bankruptcy... 1999
Steven L. Schwarcz RETHINKING FREEDOM OF CONTRACT: A BANKRUPTCY PARADIGM 77 Texas Law Review 515 (February, 1999) On these conditions following: . . . that Mephistophilis [the Devil's minister] shall be his servant and at his command [and] shall do for him and bring him whatsoever [he asks]; . . ., I, John Faustus of Wittenberg, doctor, by these presents do give body and soul to Lucifer, prince of east, [the Devil, after] four-and-twenty years being expired .... 1999
C. Scott Pryor REVISED UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE ARTICLE 9: IMPACT IN BANKRUPTCY 7 American Bankruptcy Institute Law Review 465 (Winter, 1999) At its meeting from July 24-31, 1998, the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) approved the final draft of a complete revision of Article 9 (Revised Article 9) of the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.). The American Law Institute (ALI) previously approved this draft of Revised Article 9 on May 13, 1998. Many... 1999
Beverly Moran SETTING AN AGENDA FOR THE STUDY OF TAX AND BLACK CULTURE 21 University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review 779 (Summer, 1999) This conference commands that we explore how law can achieve racial justice in the twenty-first century. To answer that question we must first ask three questions: 1) What conditions stand in the way of racial justice?; 2) How can law address these barriers?; and 3) How can we shape rules that fit within our shared notions of fairness? We ask these... 1999
Kenneth N. Klee , James O. Johnston, Eric Winston STATE DEFIANCE OF BANKRUPTCY LAW 52 Vanderbilt Law Review 1527 (November, 1999) This Article examines the new doctrine of constitutional sovereign immunity, as well as Eleventh Amendment immunity, with a particular emphasis on bankruptcy law. After giving some examples of State defiance of bankruptcy law, the Article reviews traditional limitations to sovereign immunity and discusses their viability or lack of viability in the... 1999
Ralph D. Mawdsley, J.D. Ph.D. STATE TAX CREDITS FOR PRIVATE EDUCATION: THE ARIZONA EXPERIENCE IN KOTTERMAN V. KILLIAN 136 West's Education Law Reporter 647 (September, 1999) State legislatures have designed a number of strategies to provide opportunities for students to attend private schools. Ohio and Wisconsin have enacted limited voucher plans permitting students to use a portion of state foundation aid to attend sectarian and nonsectarian schools in Cleveland and Milwaukee. In 1999, Florida became the first state... 1999
Frederick Tung TAKING FUTURE CLAIMS SERIOUSLY: FUTURE CLAIMS AND SUCCESSOR LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY 49 Case Western Reserve Law Review 435 (Spring, 1999) I. Introduction. 438 II. Background. 443 A. Form and Substance in the Sale of a Business. 443 B. Successor Liability. 446 1. The Doctrine. 447 2. Assessment. 449 C. Bankruptcy Reorganization and Bankruptcy Sales. 450 1. Reorganization and the Common Pool. 451 2. Future Claims and the Common Pool. 453 3. The Bankruptcy Sale. 453 III. Future Claims... 1999
Erika King TAX EXEMPTIONS AND THE ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE 49 Syracuse Law Review 971 (1999) Introduction. 971 I. Religious Tax Exemptions. 973 A. The Lesson From History. 973 B. The American Experience. 976 C. The Social Benefit Theory. 981 D. Tax Policy. 984 II. The Tax-and-Spend Principle of the Establishment Clause. 985 A. The Virginia Experience. 987 B. Direct Aid and Subsidies. 992 1. Subsidy Rhetoric. 993 2. Tax Expenditure... 1999
byLinda Sugin TAX EXPENDITURE ANALYSIS AND CONSTITUTIONAL DECISIONS 50 Hastings Law Journal 407 (March, 1999) Introduction. 408 I. Tax Expenditure Analysis, Legislatures, and Courts. 415 A. Institutional Needs of Legislatures and Courts. 415 B. Defining and Constitutionalizing Income While Reducing Scrutiny for Structural Tax Provisions. 418 C. Politicization of Tax Expenditure Concept. 424 D. Hybrid Income-Consumption Tax. 427 II. Tax Expenditure... 1999
Robert Freedenberg TAX TURMOIL IN PENNSYLVANIA: TWO COURT CASES MAY HAVE NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE 9-OCT Journal of Multistate Taxation and Incentives 6 (October, 1999) The decisions, which involve state tax incentives and fair apportionment practices, represent attempts to grapple with issues of constitutional and statutory fairness and appropriate tax policy. Two recent Pennsylvania decisions, one by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and one by the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania, deal with issues of national... 1999
Vada Waters Lindsey THE BURDEN OF BEING POOR: INCREASED TAX LIABILITY? THE TAXATION OF SELF-HELP PROGRAMS 9 Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy 225 (Winter, 1999) One of the primary objectives of this country's tax system is to ensure that every taxpayer pays an equitable share of taxes on gross income. In carrying out that objective, Congress promotes vertical equity and horizontal equity. Also embedded in the tax system is a promotion of various social and economic interests. The IRS and courts have... 1999
Rafael Efrat THE EVOLUTION OF THE FRESH-START POLICY IN ISRAELI BANKRUPTCY LAW 32 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 49 (January, 1999) I. Introduction. 51 II. The Origin of the Fresh-Start Principle. 53 III. Debt-Repayment and the Fresh-Start Policy in the Jewish Tradition. 57 IV. The Bankruptcy Laws and the Fresh-Start Policy During the British Mandate Period. 62 V. The Fresh-Start Policy in Israel During its First Thirty Years. 64 A. The Legislature's Silence and Hostility... 1999
Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt , Kaushik Mukhopadhaya THE FRUITS OF OUR LABORS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME AND JOB SATISFACTION ACROSS THE LEGAL PROFESSION 49 Journal of Legal Education 342 (September, 1999) The law is known as a rewarding profession. Given the time, effort, and resources lawyers invest in mastering and conducting their vocation, the rewards of the profession would have to be great to attract so many new practitioners in recent years. The rewards may be pecuniary, in the form of a high annual income, or nonpecuniary, in the form of... 1999
Edward J. McCaffery THE MISSING LINKS IN TAX REFORM 2 Chapman Law Review 233 (Spring 1999) A funny thing happened on the way to fundamental tax reform: Nothing. Just a few short years ago, it looked as if we might have another great American tax revolt, akin to the one that started this country over 200 years ago. Ronald Reagan had gotten the modern bandwagon started, first in California in the 1970s and later, from the White House, in... 1999
Stephen B. Cohen THE VANISHING CASE FOR FLAT TAX REFORM: GROWTH, INEQUALITY, SAVING, AND SIMPLIFICATION 33 Valparaiso University Law Review 819 (Summer, 1999) The Flat Tax has seized the public's attention, dominated our discourse on tax policy, been a major issue in recent national elections, and inspired most tax reform plans currently before Congress. The so-called Flat Tax is in reality a tax on consumption at a flat 19% rate. It was proposed by two Stanford University economists, Robert E. Hall... 1999
David S. Kupetz TO ASSUME OR NOT TO ASSUME: REAL ESTATE LEASES IN BANKRUPTCY 8 Journal of Bankruptcy Law and Practice 393 (July/August, 1999) At the time that a real estate lease is entered, the parties to the lease may view their futures optimistically and might not consider bankruptcy as a likely scenario. However, real estate leases are not infrequently involved in bankruptcy cases. In fact, issues relating to real property leases and other contracts are commonly among the most... 1999
James D. Bryce A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE TAX CRITS 76 North Carolina Law Review 1687 (June, 1998) Recent years have seen the spread of legal academia's favorite obsession--sex and race as the origin of all of society's ills--to the tax law. In my view, this is not a helpful development. This Article will focus on just a few of the recent writings to illustrate how little useful analysis there is in this body of writing. The first general... 1998
John D. Colombo A PROPOSAL FOR AN EXIT TAX ON NONPROFIT CONVERSION TRANSACTIONS 23 Journal of Corporation Law 779 (Summer, 1998) I. Introduction. 779 II. Background:The Structure of a Conversion and Current Regulatory Environment. 782 A. Structure of Conversion Transactions. 782 B. Regulatory Concerns and Responses. 783 III. The Case for an Exit Tax. 786 A. The Recapture Theory. 787 B. The Community Benefit Theory and the Partnership Analogy. 789 C. The Committed Private... 1998
Nina J. Crimm AN EXPLANATION OF THE FEDERAL INCOME TAX EXEMPTION FOR CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS: A THEORY OF RISK COMPENSATION 50 Florida Law Review 419 (7/1/1998) Abstract. 420 Introduction. 421 I. Meaning of Charitable Organization for I.R.C. § 501(c)(3) Purposes. 425 A. English Antecedents of American Law. 425 B. American Law. 427 II. Scholars' Theories of Tax Exemption for Charitable Organizations. 430 A. Basic Notions. 430 B. Subsidy Theory. 430 C. Alternatives to Subsidy Theory. 431 1. Income... 1998
Patrick B. Crawford ANALYZING FAIRNESS PRINCIPLES IN TAX POLICY: A PRAGMATIC APPROACH 76 Denver University Law Review 155 (1998) I. Introduction. 155 II. Economic Analysis. 160 III. Equity Analysis. 164 A. The Consumption Tax Debate. 166 1. The Endowments Tax Principle. 167 2. The Hobbesian Benefits Principle. 170 3. The Perfected Income Tax Principle. 175 4. The Nondiscrimination Principle. 176 B. The Progressivity Debate. 178 1. The Nozickian Justice in Transfer Principle.... 1998
Robert K. Rasmussen BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS, THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF BANKRUPTCY LAW AND THE PRICING OF CREDIT 51 Vanderbilt Law Review 1679 (November, 1998) I. Introduction. 1679 II. The Rational Actor in Bankruptcy Theory. 1680 III. Incorporating Behavioral Economics into Corporate Bankruptcy Law. 1687 IV. Conclusion. 1702 1998
Nancy E. Shurtz CRITICAL TAX THEORY: STILL NOT TAKEN SERIOUSLY 76 North Carolina Law Review 1837 (June, 1998) [F]eminism is about taking all women seriously, which requires eliciting the differences and conflicts among women. But in the overall feminist scheme of things, any arguable injustice caused by QTIPs to affluent (and overwhelmingly white) widows is simply trivial. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes once said: Taxes are what we pay for civilized... 1998
Erik M. Jensen CRITICAL THEORY AND THE LONELINESS OF THE TAX PROF 76 North Carolina Law Review 1753 (June, 1998) This essay has two goals: to suggest why feminist and critical race commentary (what I'll call the New Criticism) is spreading in taxation and, in the course of evaluating some specific examples of the New Criticism, to discuss some dangers of that criticism. My first thesis--ultimately unprovable, I admit--is that the emergence of New Criticism... 1998
Beverly I. Moran EXPLORING THE MYSTERIES: CAN WE EVER KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT RACE AND TAX? 76 North Carolina Law Review 1629 (June, 1998) In A Black Critique of the Internal Revenue Code, Bill Whitford and I studied four important applications of the individual income tax: to income from wealth, to the expenses of home ownership, to income in the form of employee benefits, and to marriage. With respect to those applications we compared similarly situated blacks and whites, as defined... 1998
A. Mechele Dickerson FAMILY VALUES AND THE BANKRUPTCY CODE: A PROPOSAL TO ELIMINATE BANKRUPTCY BENEFITS AWARDED ON THE BASIS OF MARITAL STATUS 67 Fordham Law Review 69 (October, 1998) CONGRESS recently passed a law that states that only persons of the opposite sex who are in marriages authorized by the State are entitled to federal benefits awarded to married persons. Specifically, the Defense of Marriage Act provides that, for the purposes of any federal act, ruling, or regulation, marriage means a legal union between one... 1998
Elizabeth Garrett HARNESSING POLITICS: THE DYNAMICS OF OFFSET REQUIREMENTS IN THE TAX LEGISLATIVE PROCESS 65 University of Chicago Law Review 501 (Spring 1998) C1-3Table of Contents Introduction. 502 I. Offset Requirements for Tax Legislation: PAYGO and Other Provisions. 507 II. Offset Requirements Reduce the Level of New Federal Spending. 514 A. PAYGO Increases the Cost of Enacting New Tax Expenditures. 515 B. Gimmicks and Downstreaming: Avoiding the High Costs of PAYGO. 526 1. Timing Gimmicks that... 1998
Nancy J. Knauer HETERONORMATIVITY AND FEDERAL TAX POLICY 101 West Virginia Law Review 129 (Fall, 1998) I. Introduction. 130 II. Queer Theory: A Primer. 138 III. The Appropriate Taxable Unit. 143 A. The Choice. 144 B. A Page of History. 147 C. A Singles Penalty?. 151 D. The Tax Policy Postscript. 152 E. The Critique. 154 F. Alternative Tax Visions of Marriages. 158 1. Marriage as Personal Consumption. 158 2. Marriage and Optimal Income Tax Theory.... 1998
Richard I. Aaron HOW MUCH DOES THE RISE IN GAMBLING CAUSE A RISE IN BANKRUPTCY? 7 Journal of Bankruptcy Law and Practice 307 (May/June, 1998) Scott Cacciatore was delighted to receive one of the 2.5 billion promotions for a credit card, a Gold Mastercard with a credit line. In accepting the offer the 21-year-old replied that he was an unemployed student. He had time on his hands living at home while on medical leave from New York University for depression. So he called bets to the Off... 1998
  II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF TAXES 4 Florida Tax Review 12 (1998) From both the political and theoretical perspectives, progressive income tax rates always have been controversial. They also took nearly 30 years to become a distinguishing feature of our tax system. At its inception in 1913, the income tax had a relatively flat structure with generous exemptions. It imposed a low, nearly flat, rate of tax on high... 1998
Karen L. Folster JUST CHEAP BUTTS, OR AN EQUAL PROTECTION VIOLATION?: NEW YORK'S FAILURE TO TAX RESERVATION SALES TO NON-INDIANS 62 Albany Law Review 697 (1998) The failure to enforce the Tax Laws against some to whom they apply, to the detriment of others, is unconstitutional. The unconstitutionality lies not on the face of the statute but in its unequal enforcement. Such is the meaning of the doctrine, a government of laws. --Judge Joseph Harris In May of 1997, New York Governor George Pataki made a... 1998
Florence Wagman Roisman MANDATES UNSATISFIED: THE LOW INCOME HOUSING TAX CREDIT PROGRAM AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS 52 University of Miami Law Review 1011 (July, 1998) I. Introduction. 1011 II. The Low Income Housing Tax Credit Program. 1013 III. The Civil Rights Laws and the LIHTC Program. 1022 A. The Caselaw's Explication of the Duty Affirmatively to Further Title VIII. 1026 B. The Regulations' Explication of the Duty Affirmatively to Further Title VIII. 1029 IV. The Treasury's Obligations Under Title VIII... 1998
Carolyn C. Jones MAPPING TAX NARRATIVES 73 Tulane Law Review 653 (December, 1998) Following scholars in other disciplines, some legal scholars have begun to analyze and use narrative. This interest in narrative has not, up to now, characterized tax scholarship. There is a world of tax narratives, and this essay proposes one map of the territory. Like all lawyers and legal scholars, tax scholars have been making, using, and... 1998
John F. Coverdale MISSING PERSONS: CHILDREN IN THE TAX TREATMENT OF MARRIAGE 48 Case Western Reserve Law Review 475 (Spring 1998) Using the Tax Code to help children has become an extremely popular idea both with the public and among politicians. Current proposals to help children by use of the Tax Code, however, ignore the fact that one of the best ways to help children is to promote stable marriages. This Article argues that we should attempt to find ways to use the Tax... 1998
Karen B. Brown NOT COLOR- OR GENDER-NEUTRAL: NEW TAX TREATMENT OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION DAMAGES 7 Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies 223 (Spring 1998) To support a host of tax give aways offered as a palliative to small businesses required to pay a higher minimum wage, Congress eliminated a venerated Internal Revenue Code (IRC) provision that supported exclusion from gross income of damages received on account of race- and gender-based employment discrimination. Congress' 1996 amendment of IRC... 1998
Nancy B. Rapoport OUR HOUSE, OUR RULES: THE NEED FOR A UNIFORM CODE OF BANKRUPTCY ETHICS 6 American Bankruptcy Institute Law Review 45 (Spring, 1998) Recently, the National Bankruptcy Review Commission (NBRC) promulgated its final recommendations to Congress. Two recommendations related to bankruptcy ethics. Recommendation No. 3.3.3 relaxedslightlythe disinterestedness requirement for counsel for the estate. Recommendation No. 3.3.4 suggested the nationwide admission of bankruptcy counsel:... 1998
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