Joseph J. Thorndike , Ajay K. Mehrotra "WHO SPEAKS FOR TAX EQUITY AND TAX FAIRNESS?" THE EMERGENCE OF THE ORGANIZED TAX BAR AND THE DILEMMAS OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY 81 Law and Contemporary Problems 203 (2018) In 1961, shortly after assuming his new post as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Tax Policy, legal scholar Stanley Surrey issued a challenge to his former colleagues in academia and legal practice. The tax system, he said, was urgently in need of both repair and renovation. Existing faults were obvious and future problems certain. The task... 2018
Leo P. Martinez A CRITIQUE OF CRITICAL TAX POLICY CRITIQUES (OR, YOU'VE GOT TO SPEAK OUT AGAINST THE MADNESS) 28 Berkeley La Raza Law Journal 49 (2018) Critical tax scholarship is not universally embraced. This is a surprising observation given that the premise underlying critical tax scholarship is simple, and--if one aspires to intellectual honesty--should be uncontroversial. The premise is that subpopulations of taxpayers are treated differently. This raises a significant impediment toward... 2018
Reuven S. Avi-Yonah , Haiyan Xu A GLOBAL TREATY OVERRIDE? THE NEW OECD MULTILATERAL TAX INSTRUMENT AND ITS LIMITS 39 Michigan Journal of International Law 155 (Spring, 2018) On June 7, 2017, seventy-six countries met in Paris for the official signing of a new multilateral tax instrument (MLI). The text and commentary of the MLI were published in November 2016 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The OECD stated: The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to... 2018
Pamela Foohey ACCESS TO CONSUMER BANKRUPTCY 34 Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal 341 (2018) Over the past decade, each year, about a million households filed bankruptcy. This figure initially may loom large. But when compared to the one-third of Americans who have fallen behind on debt payments, the one in seven Americans who face debt collection calls every year, and the hundreds of millions of Americans burdened with debt, the figure... 2018
Felix B. Chang ASYMMETRIES IN THE GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION OF WEALTH 79 Ohio State Law Journal 73 (2018) This Article assigns a redistributive role to the legal rules of trusts and estates. Unlike business law, trusts and estates law has lagged in articulating a comprehensive theory on inequality. Consequently, income inequality is compounded intergenerationally as wealth inequality, with dire consequences for economic productivity and social... 2018
David A. Skeel, Jr. , George Triantis BANKRUPTCY'S UNEASY SHIFT TO A CONTRACT PARADIGM 166 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1777 (June, 2018) Introduction. 1778 I. The Mandatory (and Permissive) Structure of the Bankruptcy Code. 1783 II. Ex Ante and Ex Post Contracting: Theory and Current Practice. 1789 III. Assessing the New Contract Paradigm in Practice. 1799 A. Chapter 11's Voting and Cramdown Rules. 1799 B. Contracting on Confirmation: Intercreditor and Restructuring Support... 2018
Sydney Pierce CHALLENGING PROPERTY TAX FORECLOSURE POLICIES UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT: LESSONS FROM MORNINGSIDE 90 Temple Law Review Online 1 (Fall, 2018) Since the collapse of the housing market in 2008, there has been enhanced legal scrutiny of mortgage foreclosure practices in the form of federal legislation and hundreds of local and state programs to stem the tide of foreclosures and keep families in their homes. At the same time, property tax foreclosure--which has been called The Other... 2018
Cameron Rotblat CHINESE STATE CAPITALISM AND THE INTERNATIONAL TAX REGIME 10 Columbia Journal of Tax Law 77 (2018) As signaled by its participation in the G-20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project, China is gaining significant influence over international tax rules. Yet, how exactly China intends to shape international tax law remains an open question, even amongst leading Chinese tax scholars. As both a major capital importer and exporter as well as a... 2018
  COMMENTS OF BANKRUPTCY SCHOLARS ON EVALUATING HARDSHIP CLAIMS IN BANKRUPTCY 21 Journal of Consumer & Commercial Law 114 (Spring, 2018) The following is a letter signed by more than 40 law professors in response to the Department of Education's Request for Information (RFI) regarding Evaluating Undue Hardship Claims in Adversary Actions Seeking Student Loan Discharge in Bankruptcy Proceedings (Docket No. ED-2017-OPE-0085). The letter was prepared by the following, and signed by... 2018
Melissa B. Jacoby CORPORATE BANKRUPTCY HYBRIDITY 166 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1715 (June, 2018) Introduction. 1716 I. Private Actors, Public Goals: The Public--Private Partnership. 1719 A. What Is It?. 1719 B. Utility for Corporate Bankruptcy. 1721 C. Contracts and Other Liabilities. 1723 D. Follow the Money. 1726 E. Oversight and Standard-Setting. 1727 F. Implications. 1729 II. Modern Developments that Skew the Partnership. 1730 A. Control... 2018
Allison M. Whelan DENYING TAX-EXEMPT STATUS TO DISCRIMINATORY PRIVATE ADOPTION AGENCIES 8 UC Irvine Law Review 711 (July, 2018) Introduction. 712 I. Adoption, Private Adoption Agencies, and the Best Interests of the Child. 716 A. Adoption. 716 1. Legal Framework and Adoption Procedures. 716 2. Public Adoption, Private Adoption, and Faith-Based Adoption Agencies. 717 3. Adoption by Gays and Lesbians. 719 4. Harms of Remaining in the System. 722 5. Outcomes of Children Raised... 2018
Shayak Sarkar, Josh Rosenthal EXCLUSIONARY TAXATION 53 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 619 (Fall, 2018) Property tax assessments appear to be technocratic calculations. But they may be calculated to discriminate, even unintentionally. California's constitutional limitations on property taxes, as first enacted by Proposition 13 in 1978, remain the poster child for the so-called property tax revolt of the late twentieth century. Such laws privilege... 2018
Jonathan C. Gordon GOVERNMENT GUARANTIES FOR CORPORATE BANKRUPTCIES 43 Vermont Law Review 251 (Winter 2018) The bankruptcy system has a problem. When a business files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, a fundamental theory is that the business remains in control of its operations. This theory, however, has eroded in practice; the business is often forced to relinquish substantial control to the lender that helps finance the bankruptcy. This Article... 2018
Dorothy A. Brown HOMEOWNERSHIP IN BLACK AND WHITE: THE ROLE OF TAX POLICY IN INCREASING HOUSING INEQUITY 49 University of Memphis Law Review 205 (Fall, 2018) I. Introduction. 205 II. Tax Subsidies for Homeownership. 207 III. Homeownership and Race. 213 A. Historical Racial Inequality in Homeownership. 213 B. The Race-Based Appreciation Gap. 214 C. Homeownership Wealth in Black and White. 221 IV. Tax Subsidies and Race. 223 V. Suggestions for Reform. 225 VI. Conclusion. 227 2018
Michelle D. Layser HOW FEDERAL TAX LAW REWARDS HOUSING SEGREGATION 93 Indiana Law Journal 915 (Winter 2018) Introduction. 916 I. The Spatial Distribution of Tax-Based Housing Subsidies. 920 A. Why the Spatial Distribution of Tax-Based Housing Subsidies Matters. 920 B. The Location of Tax-Subsidized Housing in America. 924 1. The Spatial Distribution of Mortgage Interest Deduction Benefits. 924 2. The Spatial Distribution of Low-Income Housing Tax Credit... 2018
M.T. Gebregiorgs INTRODUCING AN ADMINISTRATIVELY FEASIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL TAX SYSTEM IN ETHIOPIA 33 Journal of Environmental Law & Litigation 327 (2018) 328 Introduction. 329 I. Environmental Regulatory Enforcement and Tax Administration Authorities. 335 A. Environmental Management and Taxation Overview. 335 B. Federal Environmental Regulatory Authorities. 337 1. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of Ethiopia (MEFCCE). 337 2. Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity... 2018
Katherine E. Smalley PARTICIPATING EQUALLY: USING TAX POLICY TO IMPROVE FEMALE WORKFORCE AND MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY 29 Hastings Women's Law Journal 55 (Winter, 2018) Seeking out a more balanced life is not a women's issue; balance would be better for us all. When Nikki Waller and Joann S. Lublin presented the question why aren't there more women in the upper ranks of corporate America? in their September 2015 Wall Street Journal article, the question appeared almost cliché. With the recent revitalization, and... 2018
Bradley T. Borden, Sang Hee Lee QUANTITATIVE PREDICTION MODEL OF TAX LAW'S SUBSTANTIAL AUTHORITY 71 Tax Lawyer 543 (Spring, 2018) Our earlier article, Boundaries of the Prediction Model in Tax Law's Substantial Authority, analyzed the substantial-authority standard, identified factors that taxpayers and their advisors can consider in determining whether substantial authority supports a reporting position, distinguished substantial-authority predictions from other types of... 2018
Alice G. Abreu, Richard K. Greenstein REBRANDING TAX / INCREASING DIVERSITY 96 Denver Law Review 1 (Fall, 2018) You don't pay taxes. They take taxes. Chris Rock Why is the tax bar so white? This question has gone unasked for far too long and in this Article we offer one possible answer. We believe that answer lies in the unexamined implications of the concept of tax expenditures. We therefore connect four things: (1) tax expenditures, (2) the way in which... 2018
Sean Kelly SEC v. CREDITORS: WHY SEC CIVIL ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE DEMONSTRATES THE NEED FOR A REPRIORITIZATION OF SECURITIES FRAUD CLAIMS IN BANKRUPTCY 92 Saint John's Law Review 915 (Winter 2018) For over forty years there has been a growing tension between the Securities and Exchange Commission's civil enforcement mission to protect defrauded securities holders and bankruptcy law's treatment of those claimants. Bankruptcy Code § 510(b) generates this tension by subordinating defrauded securities holders' claims, giving them the same... 2018
David A. Dana , Janice Nadler SODA TAXES AS A LEGAL AND SOCIAL MOVEMENT 13 Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy 84 (Winter, 2018) In the last few years, several local governments have adopted new soda taxes. Other localities currently are considering adopting such a tax. In this Article, we consider whether soda taxes are becoming a more common local policy throughout the country--like local smoking restrictions--or whether, instead, they will remain a limited legal... 2018
Iris J. Lav and Michael Leachman STATE LIMITS ON PROPERTY TAXES HAMSTRING LOCAL SERVICES AND SHOULD BE RELAXED OR REPEALED 28-OCT Journal of Multistate Taxation and Incentives 20 (October, 2018) Michigan, Massachusetts, Oregon, and New York reveal range of problems with limits. Beginning in the 1970s, many states adopted new limits that sharply reduced funding for education and other important services by capping property taxes. The time has come for states to reconsider these harsh limits, which have put severe pressure over time on local... 2018
Iris J. Lav and Michael Leachman STATE LIMITS ON PROPERTY TAXES HAMSTRING LOCAL SERVICES AND SHOULD BE RELAXED OR REPEALED 46 Real Estate Taxation 13 (Fourth Quarter, 2018) Michigan, Massachusetts, Oregon, and New York reveal range of problems with limits. Beginning in the 1970s, many states adopted new limits that sharply reduced funding for education and other important services by capping property taxes. The time has come for states to reconsider these harsh limits, which have put severe pressure overtime on local... 2018
Ivan O. Ozai TAX COMPETITION AND THE ETHICS OF BURDEN SHARING 42 Fordham International Law Journal 61 (October, 2018) Tax scholars have long suggested that tax competition should be mitigated because it reduces the collective revenues of countries, impairs their ability to redistribute wealth, and produces more regressive tax systems. Likewise, international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European... 2018
William J. Moon TAX HAVENS AS PRODUCERS OF CORPORATE LAW 116 Michigan Law Review 1081 (April, 2018) Re-Imagining Offshore Finance: Market-Dominant Small Jurisdictions in a Globalizing Financial World. By Christopher M. Bruner. New York: Oxford University Press. 2016. Pp. xii, 236. $95. Bank-secrecy laws, low tax rates, and shell companies amassed at P.O. boxes are some of the common features associated with offshore financial havens that have... 2018
Margaret Ryznar TAX REFORM ON HOMEOWNERSHIP 73 University of Miami Law Review 227 (Fall, 2018) The 2017 tax reform, by curtailing the deductions for mortgage interest and state and local taxes, frustrates the American public policy of encouraging homeownership. Yet, there are many reasons that public policy has encouraged homeownership for decades. Most importantly, homeownership is an important savings tool for Americans--and tax reform... 2018
Christine Manolakas TAXATION OF GAMBLERS: THE HOUSE ALWAYS WINS 70 Oklahoma Law Review 553 (Spring, 2018) Gambling is everywhere. Whether it takes place in a casino, on the internet, or even on a cell phone, there is no shortage of venues for the avid gambler. With the rapid expansion and geographical spread of gambling activities in the United States and abroad, gamblers must understand the tax consequences of their gaming. For the professional,... 2018
Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez THE AVOIDANCE OF PRE-BANKRUPTCY TRANSACTIONS: AN ECONOMIC AND COMPARATIVE APPROACH 93 Chicago-Kent Law Review 711 (2018) 1. Introduction 2. Types of Avoidance Actions Around the World 3. The Challenge: Justifying the Avoidance of Perfectly Valid Transactions 3.1. Introduction 3.2. The Nature of the Problem 3.2.1. Conflicts Between Shareholders/Managers and Creditors 3.2.2. Conflicts Among Creditors 3.2.3. Conflicts of Managers vis-à-vis Shareholders and Creditors 4.... 2018
Dawn Johnsen, Walter Dellinger THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF A NATIONAL WEALTH TAX 93 Indiana Law Journal 111 (Winter, 2018) Economic inequality threatens America's constitutional democracy. Beyond obvious harms to our nation's social fabric and people's lives, soaring economic inequality translates into political inequality and corrodes democratic institutions and values. The coincident, relentless rise of money in politics exacerbates the problem. As elected officials... 2018
Erez Aloni THE MARITAL WEALTH GAP 93 Washington Law Review 1 (March, 2018) Married couples are wealthier than people in all other family structures. The top 10% of wealth holders are, in great proportion, married. Even among the wealthiest households, married couples hold significantly more wealth than others. The Article identifies this phenomenon as the Marital Wealth Gap, and critiques the role of diverse... 2018
Etienne C. Toussaint THE NEW GOSPEL OF WEALTH: ON SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS AND THE PRIVATIZATION OF PUBLIC GOOD 56 Houston Law Review 153 (Fall, 2018) Since Andrew Carnegie penned his famous Gospel of Wealth in 1889, corporate philanthropists have championed considerable public good around the world, investing in a wide range of social programs addressing a diversity of public issues, from poverty to healthcare to criminal justice. Nevertheless, the problem of the Rich and the Poor, as termed... 2018
Kayal Munisami THE ROLE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SOLVING THE GREAT CORPORATE TAX DODGE 17 Florida State University Business Review 55 (Spring, 2018) I. The Great Corporate Tax Dodge: A Brief History. 57 II. International Tax Community: A Disjointed Response to the Great Corporate Tax Dodge. 61 III. Of BEPS, Sandwiches and Royalties. 67 IV. Corporate Social Responsibility and Aggressive Tax Avoidance. 69 A. What is CSR?. 70 B. It's Complicated: An Overview of the CSR and Tax Avoidance... 2018
Ellen P. Aprill , Daniel J. Hemel THE TAX LEGISLATIVE PROCESS: A BYRD'S EYE VIEW 81 Law and Contemporary Problems 99 (2018) The year 2017 was, among other distinctions, the year of the Byrd rule. This once-obscure Senate procedural provision--on the books since 1985 but only recently the stuff of page one news --featured prominently in several failed attempts to repeal the Affordable Care Act in the spring and summer. Then again at year's end, the Byrd rule played a... 2018
Lilian V. Faulhaber THE TROUBLE WITH TAX COMPETITION: FROM PRACTICE TO THEORY 71 Tax Law Review 311 (Winter, 2018) Politicians, policymakers, commentators, and academics worldwide debate harmful tax competition and decry the race to the bottom regarding corporate tax rates. These terms--harmful tax competition and race to the bottom --refer to efforts by individual countries to change their corporate income tax systems to attract investors, revenue, or... 2018
Lynnise E. Phillips Pantin THE WEALTH GAP AND THE RACIAL DISPARITIES IN THE STARTUP ECOSYSTEM 62 Saint Louis University Law Journal 419 (Winter, 2018) Although much attention has been given to structural inequality as it manifests in the criminal justice context, little has been said about economic inequality as it relates to the startup ecosystem. This Article details how the historic creation of the wealth gap affects entrepreneurship, highlighting how the wealth gap adversely impacts... 2018
Tara Carone THE WEALTH GAP: THROUGH THE LENS OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES AND RACIAL INEQUALITY IN HOUSING 24 Public Interest Law Reporter 51 (Fall, 2018) The median net worth of white households by 2010 had grown to $110,729, whereas the same figure for black households had grown to $4,955--4.4% of the net worth of whites. The wealth gap is just one of many statistics that show a nation still deeply divided by racial lines. To face this divide, we need to address the questions of why the wealth gap... 2018
Eric Franklin Amarante WHY DON'T SOME WHITE SUPREMACIST GROUPS PAY TAXES? 67 Emory Law Journal Online 2045 (2018) A number of white supremacist groups enjoy tax-exempt status. These hate groups do not have to pay federal taxes and people who give money to these groups may take deductions on their personal taxes. This recognition not only results in potential lost revenue for government programs, but it also serves as a public subsidy of racist propaganda and... 2018
Keziah K. Colleton WILL RACING RECLAIM ITS SEAT ON THE THRONE? A NEW TAX REGULATION AND PARI-MUTUEL BETTING 10 Kentucky Journal of Equine, Agriculture, and Natural Resources Law 303 (2017-2018) Racetracks now have the ability to generate more pari-mutuel handle, horseplayers can keep more of their winnings, and the government can collect more tax revenue following years of lobbying by the National Thoroughbred Racing Association (NTRA) and the recent passage of new legislation. On September 25, 2017, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and... 2018
Pamela Foohey , Robert M. Lawless , Katherine Porter , Deborah Thorne "NO MONEY DOWN" BANKRUPTCY 90 Southern California Law Review 1055 (July, 2017) This Article reports on a breakdown in access to justice in bankruptcy, a system from which one million Americans will seek help this year. A crucial decision for these consumers will be whether to file a chapter 7 or chapter 13 bankruptcy. Nearly every aspect of their bankruptcies--both the benefits and the burdens of debt relief--will be... 2017
Judge Kathy A. Surratt-States A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A U.S. BANKRUPTCY JUDGE 56 Judges' Journal 4 (Spring, 2017) In bankruptcy court, like most courts, no two days are ever the same. However, a day in bankruptcy court can be peculiar to any attorney or judge because of the variety of bankruptcy cases individuals and businesses may file under the Bankruptcy Code. Before looking at a day in the life of a bankruptcy judge, it is important to first ask a few... 2017
Samuel D. Brunson , David J. Herzig A DIACHRONIC APPROACH TO BOB JONES: RELIGIOUS TAX EXEMPTIONS AFTER OBERGEFELL 92 Indiana Law Journal 1175 (Summer, 2017) In Bob Jones University v. United States, the Supreme Court held that an entity may lose its tax exemption if it violates a fundamental public policy, even where religious beliefs demand that violation. In that case, the Court held that racial discrimination violated fundamental public policy. Could the determination to exclude same-sex individuals... 2017
Kitty Richards AN EXPRESSIVE THEORY OF TAX 27 Cornell Journal of Law & Public Policy 301 (Winter 2017) The tax code is full of ineffective, inefficient, inequitable, or otherwise problematic provisions that make little sense when evaluated through the lens of traditional tax policy analysis, yet remain popular with citizens and legislators alike. The tax literature is equally full of carefully-researched, technically precise, and theoretically sound... 2017
Pamela Foohey , Robert M. Lawless , Katherine Porter , Deborah Thorne , Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., University of Illinois, Champaign, Ill., University of California, Irvine, Calif. ATTORNEYS' FEES AND CHAPTER CHOICE 36-JUN American Bankruptcy Institute Journal 20 (June, 2017) One of the most important choices that individuals considering bankruptcy face is whether to file for chapter 7 or 13. This single decision affects how long people will spend in bankruptcy, the probability that they will receive debt forgiveness and what property they will retain. Chapter choice also controls how much bankruptcy attorneys charge... 2017
Anna A. Ismer BENDING THE RULES: THE CIRCUIT COURTS INCONSISTENT APPLICATION OF THE FEDERAL RULES AND SECTION 1920(4) IN COST SHIFTING AND TAXING ELECTRONIC DISCOVERY COSTS 18 Florida Coastal Law Review 129 (Spring, 2017) While the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure direct courts to limit discovery, the process results in nearly eighty percent of the costs of litigation in the United States. In 2004, it was estimated that around ninety-five percent of all litigation documents were discovered electronically. One study indicates that electronic discovery (e-discovery)... 2017
David Spencer BEPS AND THE ALLOCATION OF TAXING RIGHTS (PART 1) 28 Journal of International Taxation 36 (April, 2017) Do jurisdictions interested in the reallocation of taxing rights have commonor conflictinginterests with regard to reallocation? The allocation of taxing rights between jurisdictions is a major international tax issue. The OECD/G20 BEPS project and programs of other international organizations (IMF, World Bank, and U.N.) have in effect begun the... 2017
Sara S. Greene , Parina Patel , Katherine Porter CRACKING THE CODE: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER BANKRUPTCY OUTCOMES 101 Minnesota Law Review 1031 (February, 2017) Policymakers have long had an affinity for chapter 13 consumer bankruptcy, the reorganization option for consumers. Instead of quick forgiveness of most unsecured debts, consumers enter into three-to-five-year plans to pay back creditors. Payments are based on available future income, taking into account a debtor's expenses such as house and car... 2017
Daniel J. Bussel DOING EQUITY IN BANKRUPTCY 34 Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal 13 (2017) Introduction. 14 I. Equitable Relief under Nonbankruptcy Law. 16 A. Contractual Rights. 16 1. Historical Preference for Damages. 17 2. Inherently Discretionary Nature of Specific Relief. 19 3. Modern Trend of More Liberal Use of Equitable Remedies. 22 a. Sale of Goods. 23 b. Caselaw Trend Toward General Balancing. 24 B. Statutory Rights. 25 1.... 2017
Sandra M. Moore FERGUSON: UNDOING THE DAMAGE OF THE PAST--CREATING COMMUNITY WEALTH 25 Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law 297 (2017) The massive relocation on the North side chronicled in Colin Gordon's essay, Making Ferguson Segregation and Uneven Development in St. Louis and St. Louis County, disinvestment driven by impermissibly based restrictive covenants, racial steering by real estate developers, and discriminatory exclusionary zoning practices is evidence of an... 2017
Mildred Wigfall Robinson FINES: THE FOLLY OF CONFLATING THE POWER TO FINE WITH THE POWER TO TAX 62 Villanova Law Review 925 (2017) FERGUSON, Missouri is a St. Louis suburb of roughly 21,000 people--67% of whom currently self-identify as black or African-American. Ferguson gained instant notoriety on August 9, 2014 when Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager, died on a Ferguson street of bullet wounds inflicted by a white police officer. In so doing, Mr. Brown became what was... 2017
Herman D. Hofman FOR RICHER OR FOR POORER: HOW OBERGEFELL v. HODGES AFFECTS THE TAX-EXEMPT STATUS OF RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS THAT OPPOSE SAME-SEX MARRIAGE 52 Gonzaga Law Review 21 (2016/2017) C1-3Table of Contents L1-2Introduction . .L322 I. .Religious Institutions and Marriage 25 II. .The Tax Exemption Statute: An Overview 27 III. .The Public Policy Doctrine 30 A. Walz v. Tax Commission of New York 30 B. Bob Jones University v. United States 31 1. Racial Discrimination in Education Prior to Bob Jones 31 2. The Supreme Court's Holding... 2017
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